Rates of breast cancer in the U.S. vary by race and ethnicity.
White and African-American women have the highest incidence (rate of new breast cancer cases) overall .
Asian-American and Pacific Islander women have the lowest incidence (see Figure 2.3 below) .
The lifetime risk (up to age 85) of breast cancer for women in the U.S. is 12 percent [220,536]. However, this risk varies by race and ethnic group.
Note that “lifetime” is defined as up to age 85 for women when data are reported by age group, but up to 80 when data are reported by race and ethnic group.
Race and ethnicity
Lifetime risk of breast cancer (up to age 80)
Hispanic (may include other ethnic groups)
American Indian or Alaska Native
Asian-American or Pacific Islander
Adapted from SEER data .
The main reason seems to be that women from different racial and ethnic groups have different prevalence rates of risk factors for breast cancer .
Known risk factors that vary by race and ethnicity include [222-226]:
For example, compared to Hispanic/Latina women and African-American women, white women are more likely to put off childbirth and to have fewer children [7,222,224-226]. Each of these factors increases breast cancer risk .
Learn more about rates of breast cancer by race and ethnicity.
Overall, African-American women have a slightly lower rate of breast cancer compared to white women [4,536].
However, there are differences when looking by age :
The reasons behind these differences are under study. They may include differences in prevalence rates of some reproductive and lifestyle factors related to breast cancer risk as well as differences in tumor biology [222-229].
African-American women tend to be diagnosed at a younger age than white women .
The median age at diagnosis for African-American women is 59, compared to 63 for white women .
The biology of breast tumors also varies by race and ethnicity.
Triple negative breast cancers are more common among African-American women than among women of other ethnicities [225,230-232].
Triple negative breast cancers are:
Triple negative tumors have a poorer prognosis compared to other subtypes of breast cancer (at least within the first 5 years after diagnosis) [233-235].
Some lifestyle factors may play a role in the higher rate of triple negative breast cancer among African-American women.
Compared to white women, African-American women tend to have lower rates of breastfeeding and tend to carry excess weight in the abdomen area, both of which may increase the chances of having triple negative tumors [86-87,226,236-237].
Certain reproductive and lifestyle factors may also protect more against estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers than ER-negative breast cancers, including triple negative breast cancers.
So, although African-American women may be more likely than white women to have these protective factors, they may not lower the risk of triple negative breast cancers as much as they lower the risk of ER-positive cancers.
For example, African-American women are more likely than white women to [86,226,236-237]:
Although these factors lower the risk of breast cancer, this benefit may be limited to ER-positive breast cancers [52,86,226,236].
There is even some evidence these factors may increase the risk of triple negative breast cancers [52,86,226,236-237]. However, data are limited.
These topics are under active study.
Learn more about triple negative breast cancer.
Learn more about the molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Learn about differences in breast cancer rates in the U.S. and around the world.
A Perfect Storm: Highlighting Breast Cancer Disparities Among African-American Women
Facts for Life: Racial & Ethnic Differences
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