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Coenzyme Q10

 

Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.

Related Terms

  • 2,3-Dimethoxy-5 methyl-6-decaprenyl benzoquinone, 6-[10-hydroxydecyl]-2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, All-Q™, Andelir®, atovaquone, Bio-Quinone®, Capsule Bio-Quinone, Coenzyme Q, Co-enzyme Q10, Coenzyme Q(50), CoenzymeQ, CoQ, CoQ10, Co-Q10, CoQ-10, CoQ(50), CV-2619, Heartcin®, hydroxydecyl ubiquinone, idebenone (synthetic analog), Kaneka Q10™, Kino-Q-10, MitoQ, MitoQ10, mitoquinone, Neuquinone®, noben, prenylquinones, Q10, Q-Gel®, Solu™ Q10, SterolQ10, Taidecanone®, ubidecarenone, ubiquinol-10, ubiquinone, ubiquinone-10, ubiquinone-Q10, Udekinon®, vitamin q10, vitamin Q10.
  • Combination product examples: Phototrop® (acetyl-L-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q10), PycnoQ10 (Pycnogenol® plus CoQ10), Cutanova Nanorepair Q10 cream, Proxeed® (L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, fructose, citric acid, selenium, zinc, ascorbic acid, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, and CoQ10).

Background

  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that is made in the human body. CoQ10 is needed for basic cell function. CoQ10 levels decrease with age and may be low in people with cancer, certain genetic disorders, diabetes, heart conditions, HIV/AIDS, muscular dystrophies, and Parkinson's disease. Some prescription drugs may also lower CoQ10 levels.
  • CoQ10 in the body can be increased by taking CoQ10 supplements. There is evidence that idebenone, a man-made compound similar to CoQ10, may help treat Alzheimer's disease. However, evidence is lacking to support the use of CoQ10 itself for this condition. There is some evidence to support the use of CoQ10 for high blood pressure and heart failure.
  • Promising uses of CoQ10 include eye disease, chest pain caused by exercise, asthma, chronic fatigue, and high cholesterol, as well as the treatment of chemotherapy side effects in children.
  • Evidence is conflicting for the use of CoQ10 in heart muscle problems and exercise performance. There is some negative evidence for the use of CoQ10 in the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis C, and Huntington's disease.

Evidence

 

Uses based on scientific evidence 

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.

Grade* 

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency 

CoQ10 is made naturally in the body, but deficiency may occur due to disease, low dietary intake, or high CoQ10 use by the body. Symptoms of deficiency include heart failure, high blood pressure, and chest pain. Depending on the cause of deficiency, supplementing with CoQ10 or increasing dietary intake may be effective.

A 

Heart failure 

Early evidence suggests that CoQ10 may be effective for chronic heart failure. Low blood levels of CoQ10 have been associated with this condition. CoQ10 has been used in combination with other herbs and supplements for chronic heart failure.

B 

High blood pressure 

There is good evidence to support the use of CoQ10 in the treatment of high blood pressure. However, more studies evaluating a higher dose for a longer treatment period are needed.

B 

Age-related macular degeneration 

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye condition that causes vision loss in older adults. Early research suggests that a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, omega-3, and CoQ10 may improve visual function in early AMD. More research is needed on the effects of CoQ10 alone.

C 

Aging 

Early study suggests that a combination of CoQ10 and other antioxidants and minerals may improve skin roughness and fine wrinkles. Further research is needed to understand CoQ10's role in skin aging.

C 

Alzheimer's disease 

There is some evidence that idebenone, a man-made compound similar to CoQ10, may benefit people with Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of CoQ10 itself is unclear.

C 

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 

CoQ10 has been studied for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease affecting brain and spinal cord nerve cells that control muscle movement. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Antioxidant 

CoQ10 has been studied for use as an antioxidant to protect cells from damage. CoQ10 has been used in combination with other antioxidants. Early study suggests that it may have antioxidant benefits in people with heart disease. More information is needed on the potential benefits of CoQ10 alone.

C 

Asthma 

Early study reports that CoQ10 in combination with vitamin E, vitamin C, and conventional therapy may reduce the dosage of asthma medication required. More research using CoQ10 alone is needed.

C 

Breast cancer 

Low levels of CoQ10 may be linked to risk of breast cancer. There is promising evidence to support the use of CoQ10 in the treatment of breast cancer, possibly in combination with conventional therapy. More research is needed.

C 

Cancer 

CoQ10 levels may help predict the risk of skin cancer progression. One study found lower CoQ10 levels in people who have cancer, compared to those who do not. Early research suggests that CoQ10 in combination with other antioxidants may increase survival in end-stage cancer. However, more information is needed on CoQ10 alone.

C 

Cataracts 

Early study suggests that CoQ10 may benefit eye health. CoQ10 has been used in combination with vitamin A to improve nerve regeneration in the eye. However, the effect of CoQ10 alone is unclear. More research is needed.

C 

Chemotherapy side effects 

There is unclear evidence to support the use of CoQ10 for side effects of chemotherapy on the heart. Additional research is needed in this area.

C 

Chest pain 

CoQ10 has been studied for chest pain caused by exercise. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Chronic fatigue syndrome 

Early research shows that CoQ10 may improve symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. More high-quality research is needed in this area.

C 

Cocaine dependence 

The effect of CoQ10 on cocaine usage is unclear. More research is needed on this topic.

C 

Coronary heart disease 

CoQ10 used in combination with the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin may benefit people who have coronary heart disease. CoQ10 may also help reduce inflammation in those with this condition. Further research on CoQ10 alone is needed.

C 

Cystic fibrosis 

Low levels of CoQ10 have been found in children with cystic fibrosis, a disease that causes mucus buildup in lungs. Combination products containing CoQ10 have been studied. More research on the effects of CoQ10 alone is needed.

C 

Dry mouth 

Early research suggests that CoQ10 may improve symptoms of dry mouth. More well-designed studies are needed.

C 

Exercise performance 

Overall, strong evidence is lacking on the use of CoQ10 for improving exercise performance. CoQ10 may most benefit people who have chronic lung diseases, such as asthma. More research is needed on this topic.

C 

Fibromyalgia 

Fibromyalgia is a condition in which there is long-term pain and tenderness in the muscles and joints. Early study suggests that people with this disorder may benefit from the use of CoQ10. More research is needed.

C 

Gum disease 

Early research suggests that CoQ10 levels may be lower in the gum tissue of people with gum disease. There is promising evidence to support CoQ10 for treating gum disease. However, more research is needed.

C 

Hearing loss 

Low levels of CoQ10 may be associated with a higher risk of hearing loss. Evidence is mixed regarding the use of CoQ10 for hearing loss. More well-designed research is needed.

C 

Heart attack 

CoQ10 may benefit people who have had a previous heart attack. More studies are needed in this area.

C 

Heart disease (chronic myocardial disease) 

CoQ10 may have benefits in people with a chronic disease of the heart muscle. More well-designed research is needed.

C 

Heart disease prevention 

CoQ10 may improve blood flow and blood vessel widening in people with diabetes. A combination of CoQ10 and garlic extract may benefit heart health associated with stress. More high-quality studies are needed on this topic.

C 

Heart muscle injury 

Research suggests that CoQ10 may benefit people who have cardiomyopathy, a weakening or problem with the heart muscle. Levels of CoQ10 may be lower in people with this condition. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Heart protection during surgery 

There is promising evidence to support the use of CoQ10 before heart surgery. More studies are needed in this area.

C 

High cholesterol 

Evidence is conflicting in support of the cholesterol-lowering effects of CoQ10. More research is needed in this area.

C 

HIV/AIDS 

Early research suggests that evidence is lacking to support of the use of CoQ10 for treating HIV/AIDS. More research is needed in this field.

C 

Hypertriglyceridemia 

CoQ10 may improve blood pressure and other measures of heart health in people who have high triglyceride levels. Additional research is needed in this area.

C 

Immune enhancement 

CoQ10 has been studied for immune enhancement. However, details are lacking, and more research is needed on this topic before conclusions can be made.

C 

Infant development / neonatal care 

Early research suggests that CoQ10 may help treat symptoms of Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting growth and development. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Kidney failure 

Results are conflicting in support of CoQ10 for the treatment of kidney failure. More well-designed studies are needed.

C 

Male infertility 

There is early evidence that supports the use of CoQ10 for improving sperm health. More well-designed studies are needed in this area.

C 

Migraine 

CoQ10 has been studied for use in treating migraines. More well-designed studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Mitochondrial diseases 

CoQ10 has been studied for diseases affecting the mitochondria, which are energy-creating components found in every cell in the body. There is promising evidence to support CoQ10 use for conditions such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which may cause drooping eyelids and vision problems. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Mitral valve prolapse 

Early evidence supports the use of CoQ10 in children with mitral valve prolapse, a condition in which a heart valve does not close properly. More studies are needed this area.

C 

Movement disorders 

Early evidence suggests that CoQ10 may be useful in treating symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia, a disease that damages the nervous system. More research is needed to confirm whether CoQ10 may benefit people who have this condition.

C 

Muscle weakness 

CoQ10 may help reduce some side effects of statin therapy, including muscle weakness. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Muscular dystrophies 

There is mixed evidence in support of CoQ10 or idebenone (a man-made compound similar to CoQ10) for treating muscular dystrophies, diseases in which there is muscle damage or loss. Further study is needed.

C 

Myelodysplastic syndrome 

CoQ10 has been studied for myelodysplastic syndrome, a condition in which there is cell damage in the bone marrow. Early evidence suggests that CoQ10 may benefit people who have this condition. Further research is needed in this area.

C 

Nerve pain 

Early research reports that CoQ10 may benefit people who have nerve pain caused by diabetes. More research is needed to confirm these findings.

C 

Parkinson's disease 

CoQ10 has been studied for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. There is promising evidence in support of the use of CoQ10 for this condition. However, more high-quality studies are needed.

C 

Peyronie's disease 

CoQ10 may benefit men with Peyronie's disease (abnormal curvature, pain, and scar tissue in the penis) in terms of slowing disease progression and reducing curvature. More well-designed studies are needed in this area.

C 

Pre-eclampsia 

Early research suggests that CoQ10 may lower the occurrence of pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy) in women who are at risk. Further research is needed in this area.

C 

Prostate cancer 

A combination product containing CoQ10 lacked benefit in men with prostate cancer. Further study is needed before firm conclusions can be made.

C 

Psoriasis 

A combination product containing CoQ10 may improve symptoms of psoriasis, an inflammatory skin condition. More research on the effects of CoQ10 alone is needed.

C 

Recovery from surgery 

CoQ10 combined with the use of conventional drugs may benefit people recovering from skin cancer surgery and reduce recurrence. Although promising, more research is needed to confirm these findings.

C 

Ringing in the ears 

In early research, people with ringing in the ears and low CoQ10 levels had decreased symptoms with CoQ10 supplementation. More research is needed on this topic.

C 

Weight loss 

CoQ10 may help promote weight loss in obese people. Levels of CoQ10 may be lower in people with a higher body mass index (BMI). More high-quality research is needed to confirm these findings.

C 

Diabetes 

Early evidence supports the use of CoQ10 in the treatment of heart-related complications in people with diabetes. However, overall study results suggest that CoQ10 may lack effect on blood sugar control. More research is needed.

D 

Hepatitis C 

Limited research reports that CoQ10 may lack benefit in people who have hepatitis C. More research is needed on this topic.

D 

Huntington's disease 

There is negative evidence to support the use of CoQ10 or idebenone (a man-made compound similar to CoQ10) for the treatment of Huntington's disease. More research assessing long-term benefit is needed.

D 

 

*Key to grades: 

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

For full grading rationale, click here.

Uses based on tradition or theory 

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional

Abnormal heart rhythms, acidosis (acid buildup in the body), adrenal insufficiency (hormone production problem), anemia, antiviral, autoimmune diseases (lupus), Bell's palsy (facial nerve disorder), blood flow disorders, cardiac ischemia (blocked blood flow to heart), celiac disease (gluten allergy), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (long-term lung disease), clogged arteries, depression, diabetic foot pain, DIDMOAD (genetic disorder causing diabetes and deafness), dizziness, Down's syndrome, encephalopathy (brain disease), eye disorders (CPEO, a disease causing eye weakness), fluid in the lungs, gallbladder disorders, glaucoma (eye disorder causing optic nerve damage), hair loss, headache, hepatitis B, iatrogenic lipodystrophy (fat storage disorder), inflammation, insomnia, liver protection, lung disease, mental illness, mental performance, metabolic abnormalities, multiple sclerosis, muscle wasting, nutrition, phenylketonuria (inability to break down amino acid), shock, shortness of breath, skin conditions, skin irritation (caused by chemicals), speech disorders, stomach disorders, stomach ulcer, viral myocarditis (heart inflammation caused by virus), vomiting.


Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare professional immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid if allergic or sensitive to CoQ10, idebenone, or related substances.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • CoQ10 is likely safe when up to 3,000 milligrams is taken by mouth daily for up to eight months in healthy people. Nanoparticular CoQ10 is safe at doses of 300 milligrams daily for up to three months. CoQ10 is safe when taken by mouth daily in recommended doses in people who are about to have heart surgery, or those who have heart disease, gum disease, muscle wasting/weakness, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes, or HIV/AIDS. CoQ10 is also likely safe in healthy people when taken for exercise performance and in children who have chemotherapy side effects. Idebenone is likely safe in doses of up to 60 milligrams per kilogram daily.
  • Use cautiously in high doses over a long period of time.
  • Use cautiously in high doses in people with liver problems. Doses of greater than 300 milligrams daily may affect levels of liver enzymes.
  • Use cautiously in people who have bile duct blockage or liver dysfunction. These conditions may increase CoQ10 levels.
  • Use cautiously in people who are taking warfarin. CoQ10 may reduce the effectiveness of warfarin.
  • CoQ10 may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Use cautiously in people who have skin disorders. CoQ10 may cause skin itching and rashes.
  • Use cautiously in people who have stomach disorders. CoQ10 may cause nausea, upset stomach, and vomiting.
  • Use cautiously in people who have mitochondrial disorders. CoQ10 may worsen mobility.
  • Use cautiously in people who have headache or migraines. CoQ10 may cause headache.
  • CoQ10 may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or low blood sugar, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood sugar levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • CoQ10 may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs or herbs and supplements that affect blood pressure.
  • Use cautiously in people who have thyroid problems or those taking thyroid agents. CoQ10 may affect thyroid hormone levels and interact with thyroid agents (such as Synthroid®).
  • Use cautiously in people who take heart rate-regulating agents. CoQ10 may affect heart rate.
  • CoQ10 may also cause abnormal breathing, back pain, bronchitis, changes in attention, changes in sperm motility, cholesterol, chest pain, constipation, coughing, diarrhea, dizziness, fainting, falling, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, fungal skin infection, gas, head pressure, hearing loss, heart attack, heartburn, heart dysfunction, indigestion, insomnia, irritability, light sensitivity, loss of appetite, low energy, lung inflammation, muscle pain, night sweats, reduced g-force tolerance, respiratory tract infection, runny nose, sinus inflammation, sore throat, stomach pain, trembling, urinary infection, and viral infection.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is a lack of scientific evidence on the use of CoQ10 during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
  • According to the National Institute of Health's Lactation and Toxicology Database (LactMed), CoQ10 is a normal part of human breast milk. Levels may depend on dietary or other differences.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • CoQ10 may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®). CoQ10 may also reduce the effectiveness of warfarin, which will increase risk of blood clot.
  • CoQ10 may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also affect blood sugar. People taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • CoQ10 may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that affect blood pressure.
  • CoQ10 may also interact with acetylsalicylic acid, agents that may affect the immune system, agents that may affect the nervous system, agents that may enhance exercise performance, agents that may promote urination, agents that may treat asthma, agents that may treat mental illnesses, agents that may treat HIV, Alzheimer's agents, amiodarone, amitriptyline, anabolic androgenic steroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, anticancer agents, antidepressants, antifungal agents, anti-inflammatories, beta-blockers, cholesterol-lowering agents, clonidine, corticosteroids, cyclosporin A, dopamine agonists/antagonists, doxorubicin, eye agents, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, fertility agents, heart agents, heart rate-regulating agents, hormonal agents, hydralazine, immunoglobulins, iridium, lung agents, mercury, methyldopa, nicotine, nitroglycerin, orlistat, P-glycoprotein-regulated agents, skin agents, statins, steroids, thyroid hormones, timolol, and weight loss agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • CoQ10 may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases. CoQ10 may also reduce the effectiveness of warfarin, which will increase risk of blood clot.
  • CoQ10 may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • CoQ10 may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
  • CoQ10 may also interact with alpha-lipoic acid, Alzheimer's agents, anticancer herbs and supplements, antidepressants, antifungal herbs and supplements, anti-inflammatories, antioxidants, antiviral herbs and supplements, beta-carotene, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, dopamine agonists/antagonists, eye health herbs and supplements, fertility herbs and supplements, garlic, geranylgeraniol, gum arabic, heart health herbs and supplements, heart rate-regulating herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that may affect the immune system, herbs and supplements that may affect the nervous system, herbs and supplements that may enhance exercise performance, herbs and supplements that may promote urination, herbs and supplements that may treat asthma, herbs and supplements that may treat mental disorders, hormonal herbs and supplements, L-carnitine, lung health herbs and supplements, MyoVive™, nutritional mitochondrial herbs and supplements, omega-3 fatty acids, Orthosiphon stamineus, P-glycoprotein-regulated herbs and supplements, red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), salicylates, skin health herbs and supplements, thyroid herbs and supplements, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, and weight loss herbs and supplements.

Authors

Selected References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Armstrong MJ and Miyasaki JM. Evidence-based guideline: pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 8-7-2012;79(6):597-603.
  2. Bababeygy SR, Wang MY, Khaderi KR, et al. Visual improvement with the use of idebenone in the treatment of Wolfram syndrome. J.Neuroophthalmol. 2012;32(4):386-389.
  3. Barboni P, Valentino ML, La Morgia C, et al. Idebenone treatment in patients with OPA1-mutant dominant optic atrophy. Brain 2013;136(Pt 2):e231.
  4. Bloomer RJ, Canale RE, McCarthy CG, et al. Impact of oral ubiquinol on blood oxidative stress and exercise performance. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2012;2012:465020.
  5. Deichmann RE, Lavie CJ, and Dornelles AC. Impact of coenzyme Q-10 on parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle performance in older athletes taking statins. Phys.Sportsmed. 2012;40(4):88-95.
  6. Fogagnolo P, Sacchi M, Ceresara G, et al. The effects of topical coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate after cataract surgery: a clinical and in vivo confocal study. Ophthalmologica 2013;229(1):26-31.
  7. Fotino AD, Thompson-Paul AM, and Bazzano LA. Effect of coenzyme Q(1)(0) supplementation on heart failure: a meta-analysis. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2013;97(2):268-275.
  8. Galasko DR, Peskind E, Clark CM, et al. Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures. Arch.Neurol. 2012;69(7):836-841.
  9. Klopstock T, Metz G, Yu-Wai-Man P, et al. Persistence of the treatment effect of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Brain 2013;136(Pt 2):e230.
  10. Larijani VN, Ahmadi N, Zeb I, et al. Beneficial effects of aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 on vascular elasticity and endothelial function: the FAITH randomized clinical trial. Nutrition 2013;29(1):71-75.
  11. Lee BJ, Huang YC, Chen SJ, et al. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Nutrition 2012;28(3):250-255.
  12. Mortensen SA, Kumar A. Dolliner P, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Results from the Q-SYMBIO study. European Journal of Heart Failure 2013;15:S1-S20.
  13. Schempp CM, Meinke MC, Lademann J, et al. Topical antioxidants protect the skin from chemical-induced irritation in the repetitive washing test: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Contact Dermatitis 2012;67(4):234-237.
  14. Yesilada AK, Sevim KZ, Sirvan SS, et al. Severe symmetrical facial lipoatrophy in a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus. J.Craniofac.Surg. 2012;23(5):e461-e463.
  15. Young JM, Florkowski CM, Molyneux SL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of coenzyme Q10 therapy in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25(2):261-270.
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