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Clinical Breast Exam


Breast Cancer Detection
Fact Sheet

What is a clinical breast exam (CBE)?

A clinical breast exam (CBE) is a physical exam done by a health care provider as part of your regular medical check-up. Your provider should carefully feel your breasts and underarm for any changes or abnormalities (such as a lump). He/she should visually check your breasts while you are sitting up and physically examine your breasts while you are lying down. It is important to ask for a CBE if one is not offered at your check-up.


 CBE - images (sitting and lying down) 

Sources for images: National Cancer Institute and Susan G. Komen® 


Who should perform a clinical breast exam?

A CBE should be performed by a health care provider well trained in the technique (this may be a physician, nurse practitioner or other medical staff). Not all providers may have this training.  

At what age should I start getting clinical breast exams?

Starting at age 20, CBE is part of routine breast cancer screening for women. When you begin having mammograms, CBE complement these screenings.

Breast cancer screening recommendations

Figure 3.1 lists the breast cancer screening recommendations from some major health organizations.

Breast self-awareness

Breast self-awareness includes knowing your risk, getting screening, knowing what is normal for you and making healthy lifestyle choices. These messages can be used to increase awareness and empower people to take action and make informed choices about their health. 

Susan G. Komen®’s breast self-awareness messages  

1. Know your risk

  • Talk to both side of your family to learn about your family health history  
  • Talk to your health care provider about your personal risk of breast cancer

2. Get screened

3. Know what is normal for you and see your health care provider if you notice any of these breast changes (see images):

  • Lump, hard knot or thickening inside the breast or underarm area
  • Swelling, warmth, redness or darkening of the breast
  • Change in the size or shape of the breast
  • Dimpling or puckering of the skin
  • Itchy, scaly sore or rash on the nipple
  • Pulling in of your nipple or other parts of the breast
  • Nipple discharge that starts suddenly
  • New pain in one spot that doesn't go away

4. Make healthy lifestyle choices


Accuracy of clinical breast exam

CBE can be helpful in finding tumors in women under age 40 (for whom mammography is not recommended).

In women ages 40 and older, CBE combined with mammography may find more cancers than mammography alone. When used together at yearly check-ups, fewer breast cancers are missed [30,51]. Although an important complement to mammography, CBE is not a substitute for mammograms in women 40 and older.

Most health organizations recommend CBE as a part of regular breast cancer screening. However, there are some drawbacks to its use. One downside is the increased chance of false positive results that require follow-up tests [29,51]. False positives occur when a CBE finds something that looks or feels like cancer, but turns out to be benign (not cancer). One large study found the chance of having a false positive result after 10 yearly CBE was about 20 percent [31].

Thinking a false positive result may be breast cancer until cancer is ruled out can cause fear and worry [33]. However, this does not outweigh the life-saving benefits of regular screening.

Updated 09/18/13



Follow-up after an Abnormal
Clinical Breast Exam


Breast Self-Exam