What is metastasis?
When breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, tests are done to check for metastasis (when the cancer spreads to other organs, such as the bones, lungs or liver). Although the cancer starts in the breast, it can be carried to other parts of the body through the lymph fluid and/or the blood. Once breast cancer spreads, prognosis is poorer.
About five percent of women in the United States have metastatic breast cancer when they are first diagnosed . Most people with metastases have been treated for breast cancer in the past and that cancer has returned (recurred) and spread. Learn more about recurrence.
Signs of and tests for metastases
Shortness of breath, chronic cough, weight loss and bone pain can be symptoms of metastases. Tests must be done to confirm or rule out metastases. The three main tests are:
- A blood test to check for spread to the liver or bones
- Bone scans to test for spread to the bone
- X-ray/CT scans to test for spread to the chest, abdomen and liver
Positron emission tomography (PET) and other tests for metastases may be done, depending on a person's symptoms and the findings from the three main tests.