The goal of treating early stage and
locally advanced breast cancer is to remove the cancer and keep it from
coming back (called recurrence or relapse).
Breast cancer can recur at the original
site (called recurrence or local recurrence), as well as return and
spread to other parts of the body (called metastasis or distant
Learn about follow-up care after breast cancer treatment.
When a local recurrence is found, it is
treated in much the same way as the first breast cancer. The tumor is
removed by the surgeon, examined by the pathologist and tested for
hormone receptor status, HER2 status and other characteristics. Tests
are also done to be sure there is no sign of metastasis.
Local recurrence after lumpectomy
(breast conserving surgery) most often can be treated successfully.
Treatment generally includes surgery, usually a mastectomy. Radiation
therapy may be given if it was not part of the initial breast cancer
treatment. Treatment may also include chemotherapy, hormone therapy
and/or targeted therapy.
Even though the entire breast is removed in a mastectomy, breast cancer can still return to the chest area. The more lymph nodes that contained cancer at the time of the mastectomy, the higher the chances of breast cancer recurrence.
Local recurrence after a mastectomy is
usually treated with surgery followed by radiation therapy (if radiation
therapy was not part of initial treatment). Treatment may also include
chemotherapy, hormone therapy and/or targeted therapy.
Metastasis (distant recurrence) is most often found when people report symptoms. These may include:
Do not panic if you have symptoms like
weight change or bone pain. These are common and most often do not mean
that the breast cancer has spread. However, you should discuss any
symptoms with your health care provider.
Based on the symptoms above, tests are
done to see if the breast cancer has returned and spread to other organs
(metastasized). Depending on the symptoms, follow-up tests, such as
blood tests (including tumor marker tests) and imaging tests (including
bone scans, CT scans, PET scans and chest X-rays) may be used to check for metastases. Other tests may also be done.
For people with no symptoms of
metastases, blood and imaging tests (other than mammography) are not a
standard part of follow-up care. Using blood or imaging tests to check
for early metastases in people with no symptoms of metastases does not
increase survival .
Breast cancer most often spreads to the
bones, lungs, liver or brain. Although it has spread to another part of
the body, it is still considered and treated as breast cancer. For
example, breast cancer that has spread to the bones is still breast
cancer (not bone cancer) and is treated with breast cancer drugs, rather
than treatments for a cancer that began in the bones.
When metastases are present, tests are
done to determine which organs are involved and the hormone receptor
status and HER2 status of the tumor. Then, you and your provider can
discuss treatment options.
Learn more about treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
Metastatic breast cancer can cause pain
in the areas where the cancer has spread. It is important to control any
pain related to metastatic breast cancer. Even mild pain can interfere
with daily life and make other side effects, such as fatigue, seem
Learn more about management of pain related to metastatic breast cancer.
Treatment for breast cancer can be a
trying and draining process. If the cancer returns, you may have a
strong emotional and physical reaction. A breast cancer support group,
especially one focused on breast cancer recurrence, may help you address
Learn more about support groups.
Komen Support Resources
Breast Cancer 101: Survivorship and Recurrence
If Breast Cancer Returns
1-877 GO KOMEN(1-877-465-6636)