Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Uses based on scientific evidence
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.
Quality of life
Pet therapy may benefit both patients and caregiving staff in a hospice setting. In one study, the presence of a dog was found to encourage staff-patient interactions, ease patient-visitor relations, and improve staff and patient morale. The preferred interactions with the dog were those that had a relaxing or comforting effect on the human. Not all patients, however, may be interested in contact with an animal.
In the institutionalized elderly, there is evidence that pet therapy may reduce depression and blood pressure, reduce irritability, reduce agitation and increase social interaction. In Alzheimer's disease there is evidence that the presence of a companion animal may increase social behaviors such as smiles, laughs, looks, leans, touches, verbalizations, name-calling, or others. While suggestive, support for the use of pet therapy in Alzheimer's dementia remains preliminary. Further research is required.
Anxiety (invasive medical procedures)
Evidence remains unclear as to the extent to which pet therapy may be of value in reducing anxiety in invasive medical procedures. Data from institutionalized psychiatric patients being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are similarly inconclusive. More studies are needed to determine the value of pet therapy in preparing people for invasive or unpleasant procedures.
Depression (invasive medical procedures)
Evidence remains unclear as to the extent to which pet therapy may be of value in reducing depression in invasive medical procedures. More studies are needed to determine the value of pet therapy in preparing people for invasive or unpleasant procedures.
Evidence from preliminary study indicates that pet ownership may have additive value in patients with hypertension who are taking conventional blood pressure medication; however, further research is necessary before any conclusion can be drawn.
Loneliness in the elderly
Pet therapy has been shown to reduce loneliness and depression in residents of long-term care facilities, particularly in people with a prior history of pet ownership. The presence of a pet has also been found to lead to increased verbal interactions among residents. While promising, research remains insufficient upon which to base recommendations. Further study is required.
Preliminary evidence indicates that the presence of a pet dog among psychiatric inpatients promotes social interactions. In people with schizophrenia, there is evidence that pet therapy may lead to improved interest in rewarding activities as well as better use of leisure time and improved motivation. There is also evidence of improvement in socialization skills, independent living, and general well-being. While suggestive, additional research remains necessary.
Nutrition in Alzheimer's patients
Evidence from limited study had indicated that animal-assisted therapy in the form of a fish aquarium in an institutional care facility for people with Alzheimer's disease may improve nutritional intake, improve weight gain, and reduce the need for nutritional supplementation. However, research remains preliminary. Further study is required.
Based on preliminary study, canine visitation therapy (CVT) may be an effective adjunct to traditional pain management for children. However, additional study is necessary before a conclusion may be drawn.
*Key to grades:
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
For full grading rationale, click here.
Uses based on tradition or theory
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional
Adaptation to a stress (in a hospital environment), anxiety, autism, communicative disorders (nonverbal), depression, diabetes, emotional expression, high blood pressure, muscle strength, motivation, post-traumatic stress disorder, rehabilitation, self-esteem, sensory stimulation, spinal cord injury, stress reduction, well-being.
Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
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