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  • Long-Term Side Effects of Chemotherapy


    Chemotherapy and Side Effects 
    Fact Sheet


    Chemotherapy Side Effects
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    Common long-term side effects of chemotherapy include early menopause and weight gain. Rare side effects include heart problems and leukemia.

    Learn about short-term effects of chemotherapy

    Early menopause

    Some chemotherapy drugs can damage the ovaries and stop regular menstrual cycles (amenorrhea). In women under 40, this condition is often temporary (periods usually start again). In women over 40, it is more often permanent, meaning menopause begins earlier than expected [32].

    Some women may begin having periods again months or years after chemotherapy ends. However, even for women whose periods return, menopause may still begin at an earlier age than for other women [32].

    Going through early menopause can be very upsetting. As with natural menopause, you may have symptoms such as hot flashes (including night sweats) and vaginal dryness (also called vaginal atrophy). And, because the onset of menopause is abrupt, these symptoms may be more severe than with natural menopause.

    Early menopause can also affect bone health. Menopause can cause a loss of bone density (osteopenia or osteoporosis). And, some women who go through menopause have muscle or joint aches.

    Learn about ways to ease menopausal symptoms.

    Komen Perspectives

    Read our perspective on managing menopausal symptoms (April 2012).* 


    Early menopause and fertility

    If you were hoping to have a child after breast cancer treatment, early menopause can be very tough. However, there are things you can do that may allow you to have children after treatment. Speak to a fertility specialist before starting treatment to learn about your options.

    The most common procedure for preserving fertility involves storing embryos before chemotherapy begins. In this procedure, some of your eggs are collected and fertilized by sperm from a spouse, partner or donor.

    Unfertilized eggs (which do not require a sperm donor) can also be frozen and stored. In the past this method was less likely to result in pregnancy compared to using fertilized eggs that had been frozen and stored. However, with modern techniques for freezing unfertilized eggs, pregnancy rates are similar [33].

    Insurance coverage for fertility services varies widely from state to state, so it is best to check with your insurance provider to find out what is covered.

    There are no known treatments guaranteed to protect the ovaries from the damaging effects of chemotherapy. However, some drugs that shut down the ovaries during chemotherapy may help women return to regular menstrual periods. This may help preserve fertility in the long term (learn more).

    Learn more about fertility options for women undergoing chemotherapy.

    Komen Perspectives

    Read our perspective on fertility options for women diagnosed with breast cancer (January 2012).* 


    Weight gain

    Weight gain is a common side effect of chemotherapy, especially in women who go into early menopause [34]. Changes in metabolism caused by chemotherapy and a less active lifestyle add to weight gain during treatment. One study found that breast cancer survivors who got chemotherapy were 65 percent more likely to gain weight compared to those who did not get chemotherapy [35].

    Women who gain weight usually put on about five to 15 pounds [34]. The more weight a woman gains, the less likely she is to return to her pre-diagnosis weight [35].

    Maintaining a healthy weight after a breast cancer diagnosis is important and may improve survival [36-38]. Learn more about body weight and survival after breast cancer

    Eating tips to manage your weight

    • Eat regularly (three small meals per day).
    • Avoid snacks.
    • Include protein, fiber and healthy fat (found in food such as olive and canola oils, nuts, natural nut butters and avocados) in meals and snacks to give a feeling of fullness.
    • Avoid meals and snacks that contain mainly refined carbohydrates (such as most pastas, breads and rice as well as cookies, ice cream and other desserts).
    • Fill half of your plate with vegetables.
    • Choose fresh fruits in place of fruit juices.
    • Avoid eating while doing other activities (such as watching TV or reading).
    • Eat slowly.
    • Drink plenty of water every day.  

    Making healthy food choices and getting regular exercise during treatment (if possible) may help prevent weight gain. Seeing a dietician may also help. Learn more about a healthy diet and exercise.

    Browse over 600 healthy recipes. Keep in mind, these recipes are meant to encourage healthy food choices, not necessarily reduce your risk of breast cancer.



    Although mainly a short-term problem, fatigue can affect some people long-term [39]. You may feel like you don’t have any energy and may feel tired all of the time. Sometimes, getting enough rest doesn’t help.

    Regular exercise, even just walking for 20 minutes every day, can help reduce fatigue [28-30]. Getting a good night’s sleep is also important. Talk with your health care provider if you are fatigued or have problems sleeping (insomnia).

    Learn more about fatigue and insomnia.

    Cognitive function (cancer brain, chemo-brain)

    Some people have cognitive problems after chemotherapy, including mental “fogginess” and trouble with concentration, memory and multi-tasking [40-41]. This condition is often called “cancer brain” or “chemo-brain.”

    Most people have mild symptoms, though some have more troubling cognitive problems that can impact daily life. Symptoms may last for one to two years after treatment or longer. Most people report that they go away over time.

    The link between cognitive problems and breast cancer diagnosis and treatment remains unclear. Stress, anxiety and depression can affect cognitive function. Symptoms may first appear with the stress related to diagnosis and treatment and then become worse after chemotherapy.
    Medications used to treat the side effects of chemotherapy (such as sleeping aids and anti-nausea medications) can also cause these symptoms. Age may also play a role. Some studies show older women tend to have more cognitive problems after chemotherapy than younger women [41]. At this time, the true extent of the cognitive effects of chemotherapy is not well understood.

    Cognitive problems may not be limited to women treated with chemotherapy. They have also been reported after other breast cancer treatments (such as hormone therapy) [41]. More research is needed in this area.

    Although there are no data to show the tips below improve cognitive function, they may help some people with memory problems [42].

    Tips to improve cognitive function 

    • Plan your day to do the things that need the most thinking when you feel your best.
    • Get extra rest.
    • Write down or record (on a cell phone, for example) things that you want to remember.
    • Use a calendar and write down important dates and information.
    • Use a pill box to keep track of medications.
    • Ask a friend or family member for help when you need it.
    • Ask your nurse or social worker for help to keep track of clinic visits.  

     Adapted from selected sources [42].


    Long-term health risks

    Heart problems and leukemia

    Heart problems and leukemia are rare but severe side effects of certain types of chemotherapy. These risks are related to the dose and type of chemotherapy drug. With the doses given today, the risk of having either heart problems or leukemia is low [43-44].

    Heart problems, like cardiomyopathy (enlarged, weakened heart) and congestive heart failure, have been linked to the use of certain chemotherapy drugs (such as doxorubicin and epirubicin) and to the use of trastuzumab [43-45]. (Learn more about trastuzumab.) These conditions can sometimes be reversed if the drugs are stopped at the first sign of heart damage [43]. With drugs that may cause heart problems, extra care is taken to avoid heart problems. For example, before you begin chemotherapy with the drug doxorubicin, your heart function will be measured to make sure there are no pre-existing heart conditions.

    Leukemia has been linked to the use of certain chemotherapy drugs including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and epirubicin [43].

    For most people with breast cancer, the benefits of chemotherapy outweigh these risks.   

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    *Please note, the information provided within Komen Perspectives articles is only current as of the date of posting. Therefore, some information may be out of date at this time.   

    Updated 07/27/15



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