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Green tea

 

Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.

Related Terms

  • (Czech, Russian, Slovenian), čaje zelené (Czech), čajnoe derevo (Russian), čajovník čínský (Czech), camellia, Camellia assamica, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, camellia tea, Camellia thea, Camellia theifera, catechins, çay (Turkish), cha (Chinese, Thai, Japanese, Korean, Sinhalese, Urdu), chá (Portuguese - Brazil), cha no ki (Japanese), chaa (Hindi), chaay (Hindi, Sinhalese), chá-da-Índia (Portuguese), chaha (Kannada), chai (Hindi, Russian), chainoe derevo (Russian), chá-preto (Brazilian), chay (Persian, Urdu), chaya (Tamil), Chinese rea, Chinesischer Thee (German), chiya (Nepali), EGC, EGCG, epicatechin gallate, epicatechins, epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, green tea extract, GTE, herbata chińska (Polish), hiina teepõõsas (Estonian), Hydroxycut®, ichibi (Japanese), Japanese tea, kamelia (Polish), lignin, lotus-f3, L-theanine, matcha, matcha green tea, matsu-cha tea, methylated EGCG, methylxanthine, nok cha (Korean), O-methylated catechin, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytochemicals, pianta del tè (Italian), planta del té (Spanish), Poly E, polyphenols, Polyphenon E®, proanthocyanidins, shay (Arabic), sinecatechins, sinecatechins 15% ointment, te (Danish, Kannada, Norwegian, Sinhalese, Swedish), tannins, té (Spanish), tea (Hungarian), tea green, tea pigment, tebusk (Danish), tebuske (Swedish), tee (Finnish, German), teekameelia (Estonian), teepensas (Finnish), Teestrauch (German), teestruik (Dutch), teh (Hebrew, Malay), teyaku (Telugu), thayilai (Tamil), thé (French), Thea bohea, Thea sinensis, Thea viridis, Theaceae (family), theanine, theesoortt (Dutch), tTheestrauch (German), theestruik (Dutch), théier (French), theifers, theobromine, theophylline, Veregen®, vitamins.
  • Combination product examples: AR25®, Exolise®, FertilityBlend (chasteberry extract, green tea extracts, L-arginine, vitamins and minerals), LGNC-07 (green tea extract and L-theanine), LipoKinetix® (norephedrine, caffeine, yohimbine, diiodothyronine, and sodium usnate), Metabolife 356 (caffeine, plus extracts of green tea, Garcinia cambogia, and yerba mate), Nature's Bounty® Green Tea Extract, PhosphoLEAN™ (85mg of N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine extracted from soya lecithin and 121mg of a dry green tea extract), Puritan's Pride® Green Tea Extract.
  • Note: This monograph focuses on green tea. Green tea contains caffeine. Thus, there may be theoretical uses, safety issues, adverse effects, interactions, and mechanisms of action associated with caffeine that are not specifically addressed in this monograph. For a more complete overview of green tea, information on caffeine is available in the Natural Standard caffeine monograph.

Background

  • Green tea is made from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea all come from the same plant. Green tea is made by lightly steaming the freshly cut leaf. Green tea is primarily made and consumed in China, Japan, and countries in North Africa and the Middle East.
  • Unlike black and oolong tea leaves, green tea leaves do not undergo a fermenting process. As a result, green tea has higher levels of antioxidant compounds. Like wine, curcumin, purple sweet potato leaves, and cocoa, green tea is high in compounds called polyphenols. Many of the potential cancer-preventing effects of green tea are thought to involve a compound called catechin. Tea also contains tannins, trace elements, and vitamins.
  • Green tea is a source of caffeine; one cup of tea contains approximately 50 milligrams of caffeine, depending on the strength of the tea and the size of the cup. For a complete overview of caffeine, information is available in the Natural Standard caffeine monograph.
  • Green tea is used as an antioxidant to help prevent chronic disease. It has been studied for genital warts, allergy symptoms, anxiety, arthritis, bone health, cancer, heart conditions, the common cold, exercise performance, liver disease, tooth cavities, diabetes, infections, fertility problems, some viruses, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, high triglyceride levels, liver conditions, menopause, mental performance, sun sensitivity, skin conditions and healing, and weight loss.
  • Although there is good evidence to support green tea use for genital warts and for lowering cholesterol, more research is needed before firm conclusions may be made.

Evidence

 

Uses based on scientific evidence 

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.

Grade* 

Genital warts 

Polyphenon E®, a green tea extract, has been FDA-approved for genital warts caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). A study reports that Polyphenon E® ointment may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Polyphenon E® ointment should be used under the care of a doctor or other health professional. Other research suggests that green tea creams may be useful for genital and anal warts and may be a less expensive alternative to regular treatment.

B 

High cholesterol 

Research suggests that green tea may lower cholesterol; however, studies in people with high cholesterol are limited. Further study in people with this condition is needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

B 

Acne 

Research suggests that green tea may improve acne by blocking the bacteria that causes this condition. More study is needed to determine the possible benefits of green tea and green tea extract.

C 

Allergy 

Limited research reports that benifuuki green tea reduced symptoms of hay fever caused by Japanese cedar. More studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Anxiety 

Green tea contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been studied and compared to caffeine or alprazolam (Xanax®), for anxiety. L-theanine was found to have positive effects on anxiety under some conditions. However, more high-quality research is needed in this area.

C 

Arthritis 

Green tea has been found to have anti-inflammatory benefits. It has been considered for use in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, research in humans is lacking. More research is needed.

C 

Athletic performance 

Evidence is mixed from available research of green tea catechins for exercise performance. Further study in this field is needed.

C 

Cancer (general) 

Several reviews have discussed green tea for cancer prevention. Several large studies have looked for a possible link between green tea consumption and cancer incidence. Most research has focused on cancers of the digestive system (stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and esophagus), although the risk of breast and prostate cancer have also been studied. Early human research suggests that green tea lacks effect in treating cancer. Further study is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Colds/flu 

Polyphenols, compounds found in green tea, have been shown to have antiviral effects. Early research suggests that specific green tea formulas may help prevent cold and flu symptoms. In children, drinking one to five cups daily has been linked to a reduced risk of developing the flu. More studies are needed to confirm these results.

C 

Dental cavities 

There has been limited human research looking at the use of green tea for cavities. Early study suggests that green tea may help decrease plaque. More information is needed before conclusions can be made.

C 

Fertility 

Early research suggests that a combination product called FertilityBlend may help women become pregnant. However, there is a lack of study on the use of green tea alone for fertility. More information is needed in this area.

C 

Gum disease (infection around the tooth) 

Green tea intake may decrease signs of inflammation and infection of the tissues around the tooth. Research suggests that green tea extract as part of a combination therapy may help reduce gum bleeding. More well-designed trials are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Heart disease 

Several large studies have looked for a possible link between green tea and measures of heart health. Studies have looked at cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and narrowed arteries, and have found a lack of benefit. More research is needed on the use of green tea for treating or preventing heart conditions.

C 

High blood pressure 

Early study suggests that green tea may increase blood pressure in people who have high-normal or mild high blood pressure. Recent research suggests that tea in general lacks effect on blood pressure. Other studies report that drinking green tea may help reduce the likelihood of developing high blood pressure. More clinical trials are needed in this area.

C 

Human T-cell lymphocytic virus (carriers) 

Early research suggests that green tea may reduce infection severity in people who carry the HTLV-1 virus, which causes cancer of immune system cells. More high-quality research is needed in this area.

C 

Hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides) 

Early study suggests that green tea may help reduce post-meal triglyceride levels in people who have high triglycerides. Additional research is needed in this area.

C 

Liver disease 

Some case reports suggest that green tea products may cause liver damage and inflammation. However, another review reports that increased green tea consumption may reduce liver disease risk. Further study is needed before firm conclusions can be made.

C 

Menopause 

Early research suggests that taking a green tea-containing formula may help relieve menopause symptoms such as hot flashes and problems with sleep. More studies are needed on the effects of green tea alone.

C 

Mental performance/alertness 

Different types of tea contain different compounds that may help improve cognition. Caffeine may increase alertness and thought. Early non-human research looked at the effects of caffeine, tea, or coffee use on short- and long-term memory and alertness. In limited human research, benefits were lacking on mental performance, mood, and blood flow in the brain. More research is needed before conclusions may be made.

C 

Osteoporosis 

Green tea polyphenols may benefit bone health and quality of life in women with low bone density. However, evidence for bone mass is lacking. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Pneumonia 

Studies suggest that catechins, the main compounds in green tea, may help fight infection. Green tea consumption has been linked to a lower risk of death from pneumonia in women. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Skin aging 

Limited study has found mixed results to support the use of green tea for skin aging caused by sun exposure. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Tuberculosis (management of oxidative stress) 

Green tea catechins may help reduce oxidative stress in people who have tuberculosis. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Upper respiratory tract infection 

Green tea was found to be less effective than CYSTUS052®, another plant extract, for symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (infection of the nose or throat). Further research is needed in this area.

C 

Wound healing 

Green tea was included in a review of treatments for wound odor control. However, more well-designed studies related to green tea are needed before conclusions can be made.

C 

Diabetes 

Early research suggests that green tea may lack an effect on blood sugar or insulin levels in people with diabetes. In people without diabetes, blood sugar levels were higher two hours after a meal consumed with green tea, compared to a meal consumed with water. However, green tea consumption has been linked to a lower risk of diabetes in some research. More research is needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

D 

Weight loss 

There are mixed reports on green tea's effects on weight loss. Some research suggests a lack of effect on weight loss or maintenance of weight. Other research reports a small decrease in weight when caffeine was included with green tea. Further study is needed before firm conclusions can be made.

D 

 

*Key to grades: 

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

For full grading rationale, click here.

Uses based on tradition or theory 

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional

Age-related macular degeneration (retina breakdown leading to vision loss), aging, alcohol intoxication, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (disease of nerve cells in brain and spinal cord), anthrax, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, astringent, blood thinner, cancer treatment side-effects, cataracts, Crohn's disease, dementia, diarrhea, digestion, food preservation, foul body odor (prevention), fungal infections, gas, general health maintenance (body temperature regulation), glaucoma (eye disease), gut disorders, H. pylori infection, hair growth, headache, HIV/AIDS, improving blood flow, improving resistance to disease, improving urine flow, ischemia-reperfusion injury protection (tissue damage caused by lack of oxygen), kidney stone prevention, leukoplakia (patches on mouth/tongue caused by irritation), metabolic disorders, nerve pain, nerve damage, pain (nipple from breastfeeding), Parkinson's disease (prevention), poisoning (general), prostate inflammation, protection against asbestos lung injury, sepsis (severe response to infection), skin disorders, stimulant, stroke prevention, sunburn, tired eyes, vomiting.


Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare professional immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid if allergic or sensitive to tea (Camellia sinensis), its parts, caffeine, tannins, or members of the Theaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • In general, safety associated with green tea comes from case reports and theory based on the caffeine it contains. Chronic use of large amounts of caffeine may cause addiction, and discontinuing may cause withdrawal symptoms such as headache, irritation, nervousness, anxiety, and dizziness. Safety information associated with caffeine may be found in the Natural Standard monograph on caffeine.
  • Green tea is likely safe when taken by mouth in low-to-moderate amounts. Green tea extract is likely safe when taken by mouth for up to one year.
  • Green tea may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs or herbs and supplements that affect blood pressure, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
  • Green tea may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or low blood sugar, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood sugar levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Green tea may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system.
  • Green tea may affect the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may affect the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of heart disease, or those who use tobacco or nicotine.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of skin disorders. Green tea used on the skin may cause burning, dryness, erosion (wearing away of skin), hives, irritation, itching, lip inflammation, rash, skin blistering, skin redness, sun sensitivity, swelling, and vaginal burning or irritation.
  • Use cautiously in people who are at risk of stomach disorders. Green tea may cause acid reflux, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, stomach pain, upset stomach, and vomiting.
  • Use cautiously in people who have liver disorders, those taking agents harmful to the liver, or those taking green tea on an empty stomach. Green tea may cause changes in liver enzymes or liver damage and inflammation.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of muscle and bone disorders. Green tea may cause mild muscle pain. Green tea is also a source of fluoride and may cause bone disease from excessive fluoride consumption.
  • Use cautiously in people who have nervous system or mental disorders. Green tea may cause agitation, confusion, delirium, dependence and withdrawal symptoms, dizziness, headache, nervousness, restlessness, and sleep problems.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of eye disorders. Green tea may cause puffy, watery eyes or retinal problems.
  • Use cautiously in people who have kidney or electrolyte disorders, or those using agents that improve urine flow. Green tea that contains caffeine may increase urine flow or painful urination.
  • Use caution with green tea dust in people who have or are at risk of breathing disorders. Green tea dust may cause asthma symptoms or lung inflammation.
  • Use cautiously in people who are at risk for pancreatic cancer. Green tea may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of iron deficiency. Green tea may affect red blood cell number and size, as well as iron absorption, levels, and metabolism.
  • Use cautiously in people undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the stomach and intestines. Green tea may impact test results.
  • Use cautiously in people taking agents that contain caffeine, including prescription medications, guarana, cola nut, and yerba mate. Green tea is a source of caffeine.
  • Use cautiously in people taking agents that may increase the risk of seizure. Green tea taken as Hydroxycut® may result in seizure activity and unresponsiveness.
  • Use cautiously in people who are undergoing menopause, have hormone disorders, or are using estrogen. Green tea may affect estrogen levels in the body.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of folic acid deficiency. Green tea may affect folic acid levels.
  • Use cautiously in children and in pregnant or breastfeeding women.
  • Use cautiously in people taking P-glycoprotein regulated drugs. Green tea may interfere with these agents.
  • Use cautiously in people who have or are at risk of vitamin C deficiency. Green tea may affect vitamin C levels.
  • Use cautiously in people who are at risk of esophagus cancer or those using agents high in tannins. Tannins (element of green tea) have been linked to an increased risk of cancer of the esophagus.
  • Avoid in people who have abnormal heartbeat. Green tea may cause abnormal heartbeat.
  • Avoid if allergic or sensitive to tea (Camellia sinensis), its parts, caffeine, tannins, or members of the Theaceae family.
  • Green tea may also cause bloating and changes in immune cells.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is a lack of scientific evidence on the use of green tea during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Use cautiously in pregnant or breastfeeding women, as green tea contains caffeine.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • This section focuses on possible interactions with green tea. Most drug interactions with green tea are based on theory and the side effects of caffeine. For more potential interactions based on caffeine itself, the Natural Standard monograph on caffeine is available.
  • Green tea may affect the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that affect the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Green tea may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also affect blood sugar. People taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Green tea may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that affect blood pressure.
  • Green tea may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood, and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert, and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Green tea may also interact with ACE inhibitors, acne agents, agents eliminated by the kidney, agents that affect the immune system, agents that that constrict or relax blood vessels, agents that harm the liver, agents that increase seizure risk, agents that promote urination, agents that treat blood disorders, allergy agents, Alzheimer's agents, antiandrogens, antibiotics, anticancer agents, antiestrogens, anti-inflammatories, antipsychotic agents, antivirals, anxiety agents, arthritis agents, asthma agents, athletic performance enhancers, benzodiazepines, birth control, caffeine, cholesterol-lowering agents, clozapine, COX-2 inhibitors, dental agents, doxorubicin, eye agents, fertility agents, fluoride, heart agents, heart rate-regulating agents, hormonal agents, hormone replacement therapy, iron salts, kidney agents, lung agents, musculoskeletal agents, nervous system agents, nicotine, osteoporosis agents, P-glycoprotein regulated agents, skin agents, stomach agents, sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3) substrates, tacrolimus, tamoxifen, urinary tract agents, weight loss agents, and wound healing agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • This section focuses on possible interactions with green tea. Most herb and supplement interactions with green tea are based on theory and the side effects of caffeine. For more potential interactions based on caffeine itself, the Natural Standard monograph on caffeine is available.
  • Green tea may affect the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to affect the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Green tea may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the P450 system.
  • Green tea may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
  • Green tea may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Green tea may also interact with ACE inhibitors, acne agents, agents eliminated by the kidney, agents that affect blood vessel width, agents that affect the immune system, agents that harm the liver, agents that increase seizure risk, agents that promote urination, agents that treat blood disorders, allergy agents, Alzheimer's agents, antiandrogens, antibacterials, anticancer agents, antiestrogens, anti-inflammatories, antioxidants, antipsychotic agents, antivirals, anxiety agents, arthritis agents, asthma agents, athletic performance enhancers, birth control, bitter orange, caffeine and caffeine-containing herbs and supplements, catechins, cholesterol-lowering agents, citrus, cola nut, COX-2 inhibitors, dental agents, eye agents, fertility agents, fluoride and fluoride-containing herbs and supplements, folic acid, grapefruit, grape, guarana, heart agents, heart rate-regulating agents, hormonal agents, hormone replacement therapy, huperzine A, iron and iron salts, kidney agents, lipoic acid, L-theanine, lung agents, musculoskeletal agents, mushrooms, N-acetyl cysteine, nervous system agents, omega-3, onion, osteoporosis agents, P-glycoprotein modulators, probiotics, quercetin, resveratrol, selenium, skin agents, stomach agents, sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3) substrates, tannins, tobacco, tomato extract, urinary tract agents, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, weight loss agents, wound healing agents, yerba mate, and zizyphus jujube.

Authors

Selected References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Bogdanski P, Suliburska J, Szulinska M, et al. Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients. Nutr.Res. 2012;32(6):421-427.
  2. Cook-Sather SD, Viola L, Zur KB, et al. Case scenario: perioperative administration of tocotrienols and green tea extract in a child with familial dysautonomia. Anesthesiology 2012;117(3):639-645.
  3. Dash C, Chung FL, Rohan JA, et al. A six-month crossover chemoprevention clinical trial of tea in smokers and non-smokers: methodological issues in a feasibility study. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2012;12:96.
  4. Du X, Huang X, Huang C, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) enhances the therapeutic activity of a dental adhesive. J.Dent. 2012;40(6):485-492.
  5. Jurgens TM, Whelan AM, Killian L, et al. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;12:CD008650.
  6. Miller RJ, Jackson KG, Dadd T, et al. The impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype on vascular function and blood pressure after acute green tea ingestion. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2012;56(6):966-975.
  7. Nguyen MM, Ahmann FR, Nagle RB, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of polyphenon E in prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy: evaluation of potential chemopreventive activities. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2012;5(2):290-298.
  8. Persson IA. The pharmacological mechanism of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by green tea, Rooibos and enalaprilat - a study on enzyme kinetics. Phytother.Res. 2012;26(4):517-521.
  9. Scholey A, Downey LA, Ciorciari JC. Acute neurocognitive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Appetite 2012;58(2):767-770.
  10. Shanafelt TD, Call TG, Zent CS, et al. Phase 2 trial of daily, oral Polyphenon E in patients with asymptomatic, Rai stage 0 to II chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 1-15-2013;119(2):363-370.
  11. Shen CL, Chyu MC, Yeh JK, et al. Effect of green tea and Tai Chi on bone health in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporos.Int. 2012;23(5):1541-1552.
  12. Subramaniam P, Eswara U, and Maheshwar Reddy KR. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study. Indian J.Dent.Res. 2012;23(1):43-48.
  13. Wightman EL, Haskell CF, Forster JS, et al. Epigallocatechin gallate, cerebral blood flow parameters, cognitive performance and mood in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(2):177-186.
  14. Wu S, Li F, Huang X, et al. The association of tea consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac.J.Clin.Nutr. 2013;22(1):128-137.
  15. Yoon JY, Kwon HH, Min SU, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes. J.Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(2):429-440.
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