Susan G Komen  
I've Been Diagnosed With Breast Cancer Someone I Know Was Diagnosed Share Your Story Join Us And Stay Informed Donate To End Breast Cancer
Home > Understanding Breast Cancer > Ginger

  


Ginger

 

Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.

Related Terms

  • 1-(4'-Hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonadecen-1-one, 1-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxydecane, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-acetoxyheptane, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one, 1-dehydrogingerdione, 1-hydroxy-[6]-paradol, 3-acetoxy-[4]-gingerdiol, 3-acetoxydihydro-[6]-paradol methyl ether, [4]-gingerdiol, 5-acetoxy-3-deoxy-[6]-gingerol, 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol, 5-methoxy-[n]-gingerols, 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decane, 6-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonyl-2-hydroxytetrahydropyran, 6-dehydro-[6]-gingerol, 6-dehydrogingerdione, 6-gingerdiol, 6-gingerol, 6-gingesulfonic acid, 6-hydroxy-[n]-shogaol, [6]-isoshogaol, 6-paradol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 10-shogaol, aadaa (Assamese, Bengali), acetoxy-3-dihydrodemethoxy-[6]-shogaol, adarak (Hindi), adrak (Urdu), adraka (Urdu), adruka (Hindi), aduvaa (Nepalese), African ginger, allaama (Telugu), allaamu (Telugu), alpha-copaene, alpha-curcumene, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-zingiberene, Amomum zingiber L., ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, beta-pinene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene, black ginger, bordia, calcium, cây gung (Vietnamese), Chayenne ginger, cochin ginger, curcumene, curcumin, diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, diarylheptanoids, EV.EXT 35, galanolactone, gan jiang (Chinese), gember (Dutch), gengibre (Portuguese), geranial, geranyl 6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, geranyl 6-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, geranyl 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-germacrene D synthase, gingembre (French), ginger BP, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, ginger power BP, ginger proteases, ginger root, ginger trips, gingerall, gingerdione, gingerglycolipid A, gingerglycolipid B, gingerglycolipid C, gingerly, gingerols, gingesulfonic acid, green ginger, g?ng (Vietnamese), gyömbér (Hungarian), halia (Malay), imber (Slovenian), Inbwer (German), ingefaer (Danish, Norwegian), ingefära (Swedish), inguru (Sinhalese), Ingwer (German), inji (Tamil), inkivääri (Finnish), iron, jahe (Malay - Indonesia, Sundanese), jahya (Malay - Bali), Jamaica ginger, jamveel (Persian), jengibre (Spanish), jhai (Madurese), jiang (Chinese), kankyo, khing (Laotian, Thai), lahya (Malay - Bali), methyl [4]-shogaol, methyl [6]-isogingerol, methyl [8]-paradol, methyl diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, Myanmar ginseng, oleoresins, race ginger, rhizoma Zingeberis, (R)-linalool, saeng gang (Korean), sheng jiang (Chinese), shogaol, shogasulfonic acid, shokyo (Japanese), shouga (Japanese), shukku (Tamil), sindhi (Hindi), sonth (Hindi), sonthi (Telugu), tangawizi (Swahili), terpinolene, vanillyl ketones, vanillylacetone, verma, Z. officinale Roscoe, Z. zerumbet Smith, zanjabil (Persian), zencebil (Turkish), zencefil (Turkish), zentzephil (Turkish), zenzero (Italian), zenzevero (Italian), zerzero, zingerone, zingibain, Zingiberaceae, zingiberene, Zingiber blancoi Massk, Zingiber capitatum, Zingiber majus Rumph., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber zerumbet Smith, Zingiberis rhizome, Zintona® EC.
  • Select combination products: Dai-kenchu-to/Daikenchuto (DKT, TJ-100; traditional Japanese herbal medicine composed of ginger rhizome, ginseng root, malt sugar, and zanthoxylum fruit), EV.EXT 77 (combination of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga), GelStat Migraine® (combination of ginger and feverfew), Goshuyuto (Evodiae fructus, Zingiberis rhizoma, Zizyphi fructus, and Ginseng radix), Hochu-ekki-to (combination of astragalus root, licorice (liquorice), jujube, ginseng, white Atractylodes rhizome, fresh ginger, and Chinese angelica root), Keishi-ka-kei-to (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed of a mixture of crude extracts from five medicinal plants; Cinnamomi cortex, Paeoniae radix, Zizyphi fructus, Zingiberis rhizome, and Glycyrrhizae radix), KSS formula (traditional folk remedy composed of Zingiber officinale rhizome, citrus tangerine Hort. et Tanaka pith, and brown sugar), LipiGesic™ M (combination of ginger and feverfew), NT (dietary herbal supplement made from ginger, rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, and turmeric, and gallic acid), sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko (TJ-109; folk medicine composed of Bupleurum root, Glycyrrhiza root, Pinellia tuber, Platycodon root, Scutellaria root, gypsum, jujube fruit, ginseng root, and ginger rhizome), Si-ni-tang (traditional Chinese medicine composed of Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaeli), Sudantha (herbal toothpaste composed of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnata L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., and Terminalia chebula Retz), Tongyan spray (traditional Chinese medicine spray composed of ginger and Clematis radix), Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (13-herb formulation containing ginger), Zhengchaihu Yin (combination of six traditional Chinese medicines: Chinese thorowax, orange peel, root of fangfeng, Chinese herbaceous peony, licorice root, and ginger), Zinopin® (combination of Pycnogenol® and standardized ginger root extract), Zintona EC®.
  • Note: Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is the official drug mentioned in various pharmacopoeias (Chinese, Japanese, British, Indian, etc.). Other Zingiber species such as Zingiber zerumbet, Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber capitatum, Zingiber blancoi, and Zingiber majus also share some common medicinal properties and uses with Zingiber officinale but are very different species from the official ginger, with different chemical constituents.

Background

  • The roots and stems of ginger have had roles in Chinese, Japanese, and Indian medicine since the 1500s. The oil and resin of ginger is often contained in digestive products, cough suppressants, anti-gas products, and laxatives.
  • Research supports ginger for reducing the severity and duration of nausea and vomiting due to pregnancy. Effects appear to be additive when used with prochlorperazine (Compazine®). The optimal dose remains unclear. Ginger's effects on other types of nausea and vomiting, such as postoperative nausea, chemotherapy-induced nausea, or motion sickness, remains unclear.
  • Ginger is taken by mouth, applied to the skin, and injected into the muscle for a wide array of conditions, without clear scientific evidence of benefit.
  • The most frequent side effects from ginger use are upset stomach, heartburn, gas, and bloating. Ginger may theoretically increase bleeding risk.

Evidence

 

Uses based on scientific evidence 

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.

Grade* 

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy 

A few studies suggest that up to 1.5 grams of ginger daily may be safe and effective for pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Some publications discourage large doses of ginger during pregnancy due to concerns about mutations or abortions. Additional research focused on the safety of ginger during pregnancy is needed.

A 

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting 

Early research reports that ginger may reduce the severity and length of time that cancer patients feel nauseous after chemotherapy. Other studies show a lack of effect. Additional research is needed in this area.

B 

Anti-inflammatory 

Ginger and its components have been explored as anti-inflammatory agents. Ginger has been shown to lower the level of some inflammatory markers in the colon. Additional high-quality research in this area is needed.

C 

Alcohol-induced hangover 

Preliminary evidence suggests that a ginger root combination product reduces symptoms of alcoholic hangover and improves well-being. Further research on the effects of ginger alone is needed.

C 

Asthma 

Ginger moxibustion or combination ginger medication cakes have shown beneficial effects for asthma. Incorporating ginger into acupoint treatment has improved symptoms, quality of life, and markers of the immune system. Further research using ginger alone is needed.

C 

Bleeding (upper digestive tract) 

A combination product with ginger may benefit patients with bleeding in the upper digestive tract. However, the effects of ginger alone are unclear, and additional studies are needed.

C 

Blood flow stimulation 

The use of ginger in combination with agents that promote bleeding may enhance their effect and increase bleeding risk. Ginger has also been reported to act as an anticoagulant. Additional research is needed in this area.

C 

Cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) 

Ginger-partition moxibustion with acupuncture has demonstrated improved treatment efficacy for cardiac arrhythmias compared to conventional Western medications. Additional research using ginger alone is needed.

C 

Chemotherapy-induced leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells) 

Ginger-partitioned moxibustion may be effective in treating low blood cell count from chemotherapy. While the results are promising, the role of ginger alone is unclear. Additional studies are needed to make a conclusion.

C 

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 

Preliminary research suggests that the combination ginger medicine packs with acupoint sticking may benefit COPD treatment. Further research focused on ginger alone is needed in this area.

C 

Dental plaque/gingivitis 

In early research, a toothpaste with ginger improved bacterial count, plaque index, and reduced the sites prone to bleeding in the mouth. Additional research using ginger alone is needed before any firm conclusions may be made.

C 

Emotional distress 

Aromatherapy using both ginger and lavender essential oils demonstrated a lack of effect on distress level and treatment satisfaction. The effect of ginger aromatherapy alone is unclear. Further research in this area is needed.

C 

Exercise recovery 

Early results on the effects of ginger on post-exercise muscle recovery are conflicting. Some research has demonstrated reductions in pain intensity vs. placebo, while others have shown a lack of effect. More well-designed trials are needed in this area.

C 

Gastrointestinal motility 

Preliminary research suggests that ginger exerts some effects on gastrointestinal motility. However, evidence in this area is limited. Further high-quality research is needed to draw a conclusion.

C 

High cholesterol 

Ginger has been investigated as a cholesterol-lowering agent with promising results. More well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion may be made.

C 

Hyperglycemia-evoked dysrhythmias (irregular heartbeat from high blood sugar) 

Ginger may prevent irregular heartbeat by reducing production of a substance for muscle contraction. Additional research is needed before a conclusion may be made.

C 

Indigestion 

In preliminary research, ginger increased the rate of gastric emptying in individuals with indigestion. Further well-designed research is needed in this area.

C 

Malaria 

Ginger-partitioned moxibustion has demonstrated an effective treatment rate for malaria. Further well-designed research using ginger alone is needed in this area.

C 

Migraine 

Ginger in combination with feverfew has been studied for migraine prevention. Additional studies involving ginger alone are needed.

C 

Motion sickness/seasickness 

Research has found ginger to have varying effects on motion sickness. Ginger may reduce vomiting, but not nausea or vertigo. Additional studies are warranted before a conclusion may be made.

C 

Nausea and vomiting (after surgery) 

Some human studies report improvement in nausea or vomiting after surgery if patients take ginger before surgery. However, other research shows a lack of effect. Additional studies are needed in this area before a conclusion can be made. Use of ginger during surgery should be approached with caution.

C 

Osteoarthritis 

Ginger has been studied as a possible treatment for osteoarthritis. However, results of these studies are mixed. More research is needed in this area.

C 

Pain relief 

Research suggests conflicting results regarding the effect of ginger on pain. A ginger aromatic essential oil combined with massage may be effective in reducing knee pain. Further high-quality research with ginger alone is warranted.

C 

Painful menstruation 

According to early evidence, ginger-partitioned moxibustion has demonstrated some beneficial treatment effects. More well-designed trials are needed before a conclusion may be made.

C 

Post-stroke rehabilitation 

Early research suggests that ginger combined with Tongyan spray may help treat difficulty swallowing following a stroke. Ginger-salt-partitioned moxibustion combined with acupuncture may be effective for urinary disorders following a stroke. Further high-quality research using ginger alone is needed.

C 

Respiratory distress 

Early research suggests that ginger has beneficial effects in some outcomes associated with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Further well-designed research is needed to draw a conclusion.

C 

Rheumatoid arthritis 

There is insufficient evidence for or against the use of ginger for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Additional research using ginger alone is needed on this topic.

C 

Sepsis (deadly infection) 

Ginger as part of a traditional Chinese medicine has been investigated in the treatment of septic shock. Further research in this area is needed.

C 

Shortening labor 

Ginger has a long history of use during pregnancy; it is commonly used to relieve nausea and vomiting. However, additional studies are needed for use in shortening labor.

C 

Tonsillitis (tonsil infection) 

A folk medicine that includes ginger reduced the incidence of tonsil infection. Further high-quality research employing ginger alone is needed in this area.

C 

Weight loss 

Ginger has been suggested as a possible weight loss aid. However, research has demonstrated conflicting results. Additional studies involving ginger alone are needed in this area.

C 

 

*Key to grades: 

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

For full grading rationale, click here.

Uses based on tradition or theory 

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional

Allergies, Alzheimer's disease, anesthesia, antacid, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, athlete's foot, baldness, bile secretion, blood circulation (rubefacient), bronchitis, burns (topical), cancer, cholera (watery diarrhea), clogged arteries, colds, colic, constipation, coronary artery disease, cramps, cough, dementia, depression, diabetes, diarrhea, digestive aid, diminished appetite (anorexia), dieresis (increased urine), dysentery (bloody diarrhea), energy metabolism, expectorant (loosens mucus), fever, flu, food flavoring, gallbladder disease, gas, headache, heart disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, high blood pressure, immune system disorders (Kawasaki disease), immune system stimulation, impotence, increasing breast milk, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), insect repellent, insecticide, intestinal parasites, irritable bowel syndrome, kidney disease, kidney toxicity, leukemia, liver disease, liver toxicity, low blood pressure, malabsorption, muscle aches, neuroblastoma (cancer), neurological disorders, orchitis (swollen or painful testes), poisonous snake bites, postoperative ileus (bowel obstruction), promotion of menstruation, psoriasis, radioprotection, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation or tapering, serotonin-induced hypothermia (low body temperature), sexual arousal, sore throat, sprains, stimulation of energy, stomachache, sweating, thrombosis (clots), tonic, toothache, ulcers, urinary disorders, vomiting (general), wrinkle prevention.


Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare professional immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to ginger, its parts, or other members of the Zingiberaceae family, including Alpinia formosana, Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger), Costus barbatus, Costus malortieanus, Costus pictus, Costus productus, Dimerocostus strobilaceus, and Elettaria cardamomum (green cardamom). Contact dermatitis (skin inflammation) has been reported, with a prevalence of 6% among people with known allergy to balsam of Peru.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Ginger is likely safe when the fresh or dried root or stem is used in amounts found in food, including during pregnancy. Ginger has a long history of human consumption and application on the skin in both the East and West, with minimal evidence of harm. The maximum suggested daily dose of ginger is 4 grams.
  • Ginger is possibly safe when the fresh or dried root in a capsule is taken by mouth in recommended doses. Use cautiously long-term.
  • Ginger may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery.
  • Use cautiously in people with gastrointestinal conditions, including gastric or duodenal ulcers, or in people with sensitive skin, or gallstones.
  • Use cautiously during pregnancy or breastfeeding, as some experts suggest amounts no greater than those commonly found in food (<1 gram of dry weight daily).
  • Use cautiously in people taking agents for heart disease, agents metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, agents that alter immune function, antacids, antibiotics, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (including barbiturates or benzodiazepines), cyclosporine, estrogen, H2 blockers, nifedipine, proton pump inhibitors, or serotonergics.
  • Ginger may increase the risk of bleeding. Avoid in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Avoid ginger use before surgery, or in people taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets. Avoid fresh-cut ginger in large quantities in people with inflammatory bowel disease or a history of intestinal obstruction. Avoid in children. Avoid in people with known allergy or sensitivity to ginger, its constituents, or other members of the Zingiberaceae family, due to case reports of an allergic skin reaction.
  • Ginger may also cause: allergic reaction resulting in skin inflammation, alteration of immune function, altered blood pressure, altered sperm motility, bad taste in the mouth, belching, bloating, bowel obstruction, bruising, burning or "chilly hot" sensation of the tongue and throat, CNS depression, decreased platelet aggregation, dizziness, eczema, flushing, gas nausea, headache, heartburn, hives, indigestion, irregular heartbeat, low heart rate, numbness in the mouth, pink eye, prolonged bleeding time, promotion of menstruation, rash, stimulation of bile flow, stomach or intestinal complaints or irritation, urge to urinate, uterine contractions.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Consumption of ginger during pregnancy in amounts greater than those commonly found in food (<1 gram of dry weight daily) is not suggested. Garlic may have menstrual discharge-promoting effects, possible stimulation of uterine contract, altered DNA in the infant, or inhibition of blood clotting effects.
  • Numerous studies have investigated ginger for the management of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Investigators of a study concluded that 1 gram of ginger in syrup taken daily in divided doses for two weeks was safe to treat nausea in the first trimester.
  • Ginger use during pregnancy lacks an association with congenital malformations, low Apgar score, low birthweight, preterm birth, or stillbirth or perinatal death.
  • Limited evidence suggests ginger may promote lactation.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • Ginger may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. People taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Ginger may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Ginger may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood, and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert, and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Ginger may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.
  • Because ginger contains estrogen like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Ginger may cause altered blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that alter blood pressure.
  • Ginger may also interact with agents for arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, malaria, obesity; agents for nausea or vomiting; agents for pain relief; agents for the brain, heart, skin, intestines or stomach; agents that alter immune function; agents that regulate heart rhythm; agents that widen blood vessels; agents to suppress coughing; antacids; antibiotics; antifungal agents; antihistamines; anti-inflammatory agents; antiprotozoals; antiviral agents; benzodiazepines; cardiac glycosides; cholesterol lowering agents; COX inhibitors; cyclosporine; dental agents; impotence agents; metronidazole; nifedipine; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs); P-glycoprotein-regulated agents; sedative agents; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; agents for depression); and stimulants.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Ginger may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Ginger may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Ginger may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the P450 system.
  • Because ginger contains estrogen like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Ginger may alter blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that alter blood pressure.
  • Ginger may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements.
  • Ginger may also interact with antacids; antibacterials; antioxidants; antiparasitics; antivirals; calcium; cardiac glycosides; cholesterol lowering herbs and supplements; COX inhibitors; dental herbs and supplements; garlic; ginkgo; herbs and supplements for arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, malaria, obesity; herbs and supplements for nausea or vomiting; herbs and supplements for pain relief; herbs and supplements for the brain, heart, blood, intestines or stomach; herbs and supplements that alter immune function; herbs and supplements that regulate heart rhythm; herbs and supplements that widen blood vessels; herbs and supplements to suppress coughing; impotence herbs and supplements; perillyl alcohol-containing agents; P-glycoprotein-regulated herbs and supplements; sedative herbs and supplements; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; herbs and supplements for depression); and stimulants.

Authors

Selected References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Cady, R. K., Goldstein, J., Nett, R., Mitchell, R., Beach, M. E., and Browning, R. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine. Headache 2011;51(7):1078-1086.
  2. Chan, H. T., So, L. T., Li, S. W., Siu, C. W., Lau, C. P., and Tse, H. F. Effect of herbal consumption on time in therapeutic range of warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2011;58(1):87-90.
  3. Chopra, A., Saluja, M., Tillu, G., Venugopalan, A., Narsimulu, G., Handa, R., Bichile, L., Raut, A., Sarmukaddam, S., and Patwardhan, B. Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study. Clin.Rheumatol. 2012;31(2):259-269.
  4. Drozdov, V. N., Kim, V. A., Tkachenko, E. V., and Varvanina, G. G. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2012;18(6):583-588.
  5. Feng, X. G., Hao, W. J., Ding, Z., Sui, Q., Guo, H., and Fu, J. Clinical study on tongyan spray for post-stroke dysphagia patients: a randomized controlled trial. Chin J.Integr.Med. 2012;18(5):345-349.
  6. Heitmann, K., Nordeng, H., and Holst, L. Safety of ginger use in pregnancy: results from a large population-based cohort study. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2013;69(2):269-277.
  7. Hu, M. L., Rayner, C. K., Wu, K. L., Chuah, S. K., Tai, W. C., Chou, Y. P., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Hu, T. H. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J.Gastroenterol. 1-7-2011;17(1):105-110.
  8. Jayashankar, S., Panagoda, G. J., Amaratunga, E. A., Perera, K., and Rajapakse, P. S. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med.J. 2011;56(1):5-9.
  9. Lu, M., Zhang, L. F., Yuan, Y., and Yu, D. D. [Comparison on heat sensation degree of ginger-partition moxibustion and suspended moxibustion at different acupoints for different time]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2011;31(3):232-235.
  10. Mansour, M. S., Ni, Y. M., Roberts, A. L., Kelleman, M., Roychoudhury, A., and St-Onge, M. P. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism 2012;61(10):1347-1352.
  11. Mohammadbeigi, R., Shahgeibi, S., Soufizadeh, N., Rezaiie, M., and Farhadifar, F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 8-15-2011;14(16):817-820.
  12. Pillai, A. K., Sharma, K. K., Gupta, Y. K., and Bakhshi, S. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr.Blood Cancer 2011;56(2):234-238.
  13. Ryan, J. L., Heckler, C. E., Roscoe, J. A., Dakhil, S. R., Kirshner, J., Flynn, P. J., Hickok, J. T., and Morrow, G. R. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support.Care Cancer 2012;20(7):1479-1489.
  14. Zahmatkash, M. and Vafaeenasab, M. R. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 7-1-2011;14(13):715-719.
  15. Zick, S. M., Turgeon, D. K., Vareed, S. K., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Wright, B. D., Alrawi, S., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2011;4(11):1929-1937.
previous  Folate 
Ginkgo Biloba  next