Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Uses based on scientific evidence
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
For full grading rationale, click here.
Uses based on tradition or theory
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional
Acne, aging, allergies, antioxidant, asthma, autism, blood circulation, blood stasis, blood viscosity (to improve), burns, cancer, cardiovascular disease/angina, cerebral infarction, cerebral palsy, cervical and lumbar syndrome, chronic gastritis, chronic neck pain, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic pelvic inflammation, chronic renal failure, cognitive malfunction, colorectal cancer, common cold, cutaneous pruritus, cystitis, dementia, dermatitis, detoxification, diabetes, diarrhea, dry mouth, epilepsy, fallopian tube obstruction, fatigue, female idiopathic precocious puberty, fever, bone fracture healing, gallstone pancreatitis, gastric carcinoma, gastrointestinal disorders, Graves' disease, headache, heart failure, hepatic fibrosis in cirrhosis, hepatitis, human cytomegalovirus treatment, hyperglycemia, hypertension, immunoregulation, immunostimulant, increased fetal activity, infantile chronic aplastic anemia, inflammation, inflammation of the cervix, infertility, insomnia, irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation), irregular menstrual periods, irritable bowel syndrome, knee osteoarthritis, latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA), liver cancer, liver cirrhosis, liver disease, liver function, lower back pain, lung cancer, lung diseases, malaria, menopausal symptoms, metabolic disorders, menstrual pain, migraine, minimal brain dysfunction, motion sickness, muscle tissue oxygen saturation, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nausea/vomiting, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, pain, pancreatic disorders, Parkinson's disease, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), psychiatric disorders, pulmonary encephalopathy, obesity, ovulation (to promote), phlebitis symptoms, primary nephritic syndrome, quality of life, radiotherapy-induced post-visual pathway injury, renal function, resistant peptic ulcer, respiratory infection, rheumatoid arthritis, root canal surgery, rotator cuff tendonitis, schizophrenia, seasonal allergic rhinitis, senile vascular dementia (VaD), sleep disturbance, slow skeletal growth, skin conditions, substance abuse, thrombocytopenia, transplants, ulcerative colitis, ulcers, uric acid nephropathy, urination (to increase), vasodilation, viral myocarditis, wound healing.
Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Discover the different ways you can help
1-877 GO KOMEN(1-877-465-6636)
Give hope to others in your situation
Every two minutes, another case of breast cancer is diagnosed in the U.S. In the next two minutes, you can help give the gift of hope. Become a monthly donor to help us support research, treatment assistance, education and more.