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Astragalus

 

Natural Standard Monograph, Copyright © 2014 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified health care professional before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.

Related Terms

  • Astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, Astragalus adsurgens, Astragalus adsurgens Pall., Astragalus beckari, Astragalus bibullatus (Fabaceae), Astragalus bisulcatus, Astragalus bisulcatus (Hook.) A.Gray (two-grooved milkvetch), Astragalus canadensis, Astragalus caspicus Bieb., Astragalus cicer, Astragalus compactus Lam., Astragalus complanatus R.Br., Astragalus corniculatus Bieb. (Fabaceae), Astragalus drummondii, Astragalus gummifer Lab., Astragalus gummifera, Astragalus icmadophilus, Astragalus incanus, Astragalus lentiginosus (spotted locoweed), Astragalus membranaceus, Astragalus membranaceus Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.),Astragalus membranaceus extract (PG2),Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao., Astragalus membranaceus (Fischer) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) Hsiao, Astragalus membranaceus japonica, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, Astragalus mollissimus (wooly locoweed), Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Astragalus polysaccharide, Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus sahendi, Astragalus saponin, Astragalus sieberi DC., Astragalus sinicus (Chinese milkvetch), Astragalus sinicus L., Astragalus trigonus, Astragalus wiedemannianus Fischer, astragel, baak kei, beg kei, bei qi, buck qi, calycosin, Chinese milkvetch, Fabaceae (family), formononetin, gaba-aminobytyric acid, goat's horn, goat's thorn, green dragon, gum dragon, gum tragacanthae, gummi tragacanthae, hoang ky, hog gum, Huang Qi, huang-chi, huangoi, huangqi, Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (HQGZWWT), hwanggi, isoflavonoids, ji cao, Leguminosae (family), locoweed, membranous milk vetch, milk vetch, milkvetch, Mongolian milk, Mongolian milk vetch, neimeng huangqi, ogi, ononin, ougi, Phaca membranacea Fisch., pterocarpans, radix Astragali, radix Astragali (Huangqi), radix Astragali mongolici (Huangqi), radix Astragali seu Hedysari, saponins, spino santo, spotted locoweed, swainsonine, Syrian tragacanth, tai shen, tragacanth, trigonoside I, trigonoside II, trigonoside III, wooly locoweed, wong kei, yellow leader, yellow vetch, Zhongfengnaomitong.
  • Combination product examples: Ai Di, Jin Fu Kang, JTC (Astragalus membranaceus 30g, Rehmannia glutinosa 30g, Salvia miltiorrhiza 30g, Anemarrhena asphodeloides 15g, Epimedium brevicornum 30g, Atractylodes macrocephala 15g), Dang Gui Buxue Tang (1:5 combination of Dang Gui (Angelica sinensis) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus), Jian Yan Ling (JYL; Succinum, Pteria margaritifers, Astragalus membranaceus), Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (containing radix Paeoniae [peony root], rhizoma Zingiberis [ginger rhizome], Saccharum granorum (barley malt sugar), fructus Zizphi [jujube dates], radix Glycyrrhizae [licorice root], cortex Cinnamomi [cassia bark], and radix Astragali [astragalus root]), Huangqi Zengmian, Jiangtangjia, Jiedu Yanggan Gao (Artemisia capillaris, Taraxacum mongolicum, Plantago seed, Cephalanoplos segetum, Hedyotis diffusa, flos Chrysanthemi indici, Smilax glabra, Astragalus membranaceus, Salviae miltiorrhizae, fructus Polygonii orientalis, radix Paeoniae alba, Polygonatum sibiricum, etc.), Sanhuang, Shengxue Mixture (SXM; radix Astragali, radix Condonopsis pilosulae, and rhizoma Atractylodis macrolephalae), SH (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Morus alba L., Astragalus membranaceus Fisch. Bge., Carthamus tinctorius L.), Yi-qi Huo-xue Injection (YHI; Panax ginseng, Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis), Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) (radix Astragali and radix Angelicae sinensis), ningxintong granule (NXTG) (milkvetch root, pueraria root, ligustici, ilexpuhesceus, Manchurian wild ginger, 10g in each package), Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang (HQGZWWT), Biminne (baicalin, icariin and Astragalus saponin I), Drynol Cibotinis (Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune), Shen Yan Ling Tablet (Tripterygium wilfordii, radix Astragali, and others), Wujia Bugu Recipe (WBR) (radix Rehmanniae Praeparata, radix Achyranthis bidentatae, radix Astragali, radix Angelicae sinensis, acetolytic substance of Concha Ostreae), Lixu Jieyu Recipe (LJR) (milkvetch root 30g, kudzu vine root 30g, asiabell root 15g, red sage root 10g, aizoon stonecrop 15g, epimedium herb 10g, Curcuma root 10g, and grassleaved sweetflag rhizome 10g, made into 200mL of decoction), Tongguan Capsule (Chinese medicine composed with radix Astragali, radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, etc.), Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) (radix Astragali, radix Angelicae sinensis, rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong, radix Paeoniae rubra, flos Carthami, semen Persicae and Lumbricus), Hengyan medicinal recipe (Bombyx batryticatus, cicada slough, curcuma, rhubarb, radix astragalus, radix ophiopogonis, red ginseng, paeony, walnut kernel, and safflower), SR10 (radix Astragali, radix Codonopsis and cortex Lycii).

Background

  • Astragalus has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with other herbs to stimulate the immune system. It is also used in combination with chemotherapy to reduce adverse effects. Based on traditional use and clinical experience, astragalus is generally considered to be safe.
  • Early research suggests potential uses for astragalus when combined with other herbs. It is unclear if astragalus alone will have the same effects. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating astragalus on its own are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
  • Astragalus is a large genus of over 2,000 species. Gummy sap (called tragacanth) from astragalus is used as a thickener in ice cream, as a denture adhesive, and as an antidiarrheal agent.

Evidence

 

Uses based on scientific evidence 

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare professional.

Grade* 

Allergies 

Early research reports that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, decreased runny nose from allergies. More well-designed trials are needed.

C 

Anorexia 

A combination of herbs including astragalus showed benefit in treating anorexia. Research using astragalus alone is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Aplastic anemia (damaged bone marrow) 

Early research reports that astragalus, as part of an herbal combination formula, may have beneficial effects in aplastic anemia. Studies are needed on astragalus alone before a conclusion may be made.

C 

Asthma 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, in addition to a strong red light and an electromagnetic field (EMF) neutralizer, may have beneficial effects on severe asthma. Additional studies on astragalus alone are needed on this topic.

C 

Athletic performance 

According to early research, an astragalus-containing combination formula may reduce fatigue and increase athletic performance. Further research is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Attention deficit disorder 

Limited evidence suggests that an astragalus combination product may be more effective than Ritalin® in reducing attention-deficit disorder symptoms. However, astragalus may not exhibit greater efficacy than Ritalin®. Well-designed trials examining astragalus alone are needed.

C 

Beta-thalassemia (genetic blood disorder) 

Limited research suggests that an astragalus-containing mixture may be an effective treatment for beta-thalassemia. Furthermore, astragalus may increase hemoglobin levels. Further study is needed in this area.

C 

Burns 

Few clinical trials have investigated the effects of astragalus among burn patients. Limited research suggests that astragalus may positively affect levels of various blood endpoints. Further research is required before strong conclusions may be made.

C 

Cerebral palsy (motor condition) 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus may be beneficial for children with cerebral palsy. Further research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Chemotherapy 

Early research reports that an astragalus herbal mixture may improve quality of life in people undergoing chemotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Chronic fatigue syndrome 

Limited evidence suggests that a combination including astragalus may decrease fatigue-related symptoms. Additional well-designed trials examining astragalus alone are needed in this area.

C 

Cognitive function 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination therapy, may improve cognitive function. More research is required in this field before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Common cold / upper respiratory tract infection 

Astragalus is often used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a part of herbal mixtures for upper respiratory tract infections. Antiviral activity has been reported in some studies. However, due to a lack of well-designed research, no firm conclusions may be drawn.

C 

Diabetes 

There is some evidence that astragalus may improve the effectiveness of conventional diabetes therapies and lower blood sugar. More research is required before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Diabetic complications 

There is some evidence that astragalus, as part of a combination therapy, may be an effective treatment for diabetic foot ulcers. More well-designed trials of astragalus alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Fatigue (cancer) 

Limited research reports that astragalus extract may improve cancer-related fatigue. Additional research is needed in this area.

C 

Hearing loss 

Astragalus may improve hearing in people with hearing loss. Further well designed study is needed.

C 

Heart disease 

Astragalus may benefit heart disease through antioxidant properties. Research suggests astragalus may also improve the immune response and symptoms of heart failure. More well-designed trials are needed in this area.

C 

Helicobacter pylori infection 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may be effective in reducing H. pylori infections. More well-designed trials of astragalus alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Hepatitis 

Research suggests that astragalus may have antiviral effects and trigger an immune response against the viruses that cause hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed in this area.

C 

Herpes 

Research suggests that astragalus may have antiviral effects and trigger an immune response against herpes viruses. Additional studies are needed in this area.

C 

HIV 

Research suggests that astragalus may have antiviral effects and trigger an immune response against viruses. Astragalus in combination with other herbs in HIV patients may improve quality of life and HIV symptoms. Additional studies are needed in this area.

C 

Immune stimulation 

Several small studies report that astragalus may stimulate and improve immune system function. Further research is needed in this area.

C 

Infection 

Early research studying the effect of astragalus on infections is conflicting. Further research is required before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Kidney failure 

Early research suggests that astragalus may be effective for kidney disease. However, there is insufficient evidence from human studies to support this claim.

C 

Kidney protection 

In children with congenital heart disease, injection of astragalus protected against kidney injury. Further study is needed in this area.

C 

Liver protection 

Research suggests that astragalus may be effective against liver disease. Further research is required before a conclusion can be made.

C 

Lupus 

Astragalus has been shown to improve immune parameters in patients with lupus. More studies are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Menopausal symptoms 

There is unclear evidence for astragalus for reducing menopausal symptoms. Further research is required before a conclusion may be made.

C 

Menstrual disorders 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may be beneficial in menstrual disorders. More well-designed trials of astragalus alone are needed.

C 

Mental performance 

Some evidence suggests that astragalus may aid the mental performance of children with low IQ. Further well-designed trials are required in this area.

C 

Myasthenia gravis (neuromuscular disorder) 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may benefit immune function in people with myasthenia gravis. More well-designed trials of astragalus alone are needed in this area.

C 

Neck pain 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination therapy, may relieve pain in people with chronic neck pain. More research is required before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Prostate inflammation 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may benefit chronic prostate inflammation. More studies on astragalus alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Smoking cessation 

Astragalus has been used traditionally to aid in smoking cessation. Well-designed studies are required before conclusions can be made.

C 

Stroke 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may be effective in treating stroke. More well-designed trials of astragalus alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

Tuberculosis 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus may benefit people with tuberculosis. Further well-designed studies are required before conclusions can be made.

C 

Viral myocarditis (heart inflammation) 

Several studies suggest that astragalus may improve symptoms of heart inflammation. Astragalus may strengthen the immune response in response to viruses. However, larger, higher-quality studies are needed in this area.

C 

Weight loss 

Limited evidence suggests that astragalus, as part of a combination formula, may be useful for weight loss. More studies of astragalus alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C 

 

*Key to grades: 

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

For full grading rationale, click here.

Uses based on tradition or theory 

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional

Adaptogen, adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease), aggression, aging, altitude (mountain) sickness, anemia, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, anxiety, arthritis (ankylosing spondylitis), astringent, atopic dermatitis, blood circulation, blood vessel disorders, bone marrow suppression, brain injuries (minimal brain dysfunction), cervicitis (inflammation of cervix), chronic illness, congestion (phlegm), convulsions, dementia, demulcent (protects mucus membrane), denture adhesive (astragalus sap), diarrhea, digestion enhancement, diuretic (increase urination), ear infection, expectorant (promotes mucus secretion), fever, gangrene, gastrointestinal disorders, graft healing, hematopoiesis (stimulation of blood cell production), hemorrhage (bleeding), hemorrhoids, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), infertility, insomnia, joint pain, labor, laxative, leprosy, lung fibrosis, memory, metabolic disorders, multiple sclerosis, muscle wasting/weakness, myalgia (muscle pain), neuroprotective, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, pain, Parkinson's disease, pelvic congestion syndrome (pelvic pain), proteinuria (protein in the urine), psoriasis, qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome in heart disease (Eastern medicine), radioprotection, rectal prolapse, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis (serious infection), shortness of breath, skin care, spleen disorders, stomach ulcers, stress, sweating (excessive), swelling, tissue oxygenation, tonic, tonsillitis (tonsil inflammation), uterine complaints, vitality, wound healing.


Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare professional immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to Astragalus membranaceus, its parts, or other members of the Fabaceae family. In theory, patients with allergies to members of the Leguminosae (pea) family may react to astragalus. Cross-reactivity with quillaja bark (soapbark) has been reported.
  • A positive skin reaction to astragalus powder injection has been reported.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Astragalus is likely safe when taken in suggested doses.
  • Astragalus may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Astragalus may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Astragalus may alter blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs or herbs and supplements that alter blood pressure.
  • Use cautiously when injecting astragalus rapidly into the blood or taking high doses of astragalus for a long time.
  • Use cautiously in people with autoimmune disease, gastrointestinal conditions, high blood pressure, musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, or skin conditions. Use cautiously in pregnant or lactating women.
  • Use cautiously in people taking agents that alter immune function, agents that increase urination, agents that relax blood vessels, anesthetics, CNS stimulates, colchicines, dopamine agonists, growth hormones, immunosuppressant agents, interferons, neuromuscular blockers, or sedatives.
  • Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to Astragalus membranaceus, its parts, or other members of the Fabaceae family. Avoid in people with allergies to members of the Leguminosae (pea) family or quillaja bark (soapbark).
  • Astragalus may also cause abnormal kidney function, altered blood pressure, dehydration, diarrhea, dizziness, effects on bone marrow, eczema, facial flushing, fever, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart palpitations, increased growth hormone levels, increased urination, itching, lower back pain, metabolic abnormalities, mild gastrointestinal effects, nausea, neurological syndromes, pharyngitis (throat inflammation), pneumonia, prevention of blood clots, rash, rhinosinusitis (inflammation of sinuses),stimulation of immune system, stimulant effects, tonsil inflammation, toxic effects in a fetus, toxicity in pregnant women, vulval inflammation.
  • Note: In theory, consumption of the tragacanth (the gummy sap derived from astragalus) may reduce absorption of agents taken by mouth. Therefore, tragacanth and other agents should be taken at separate times.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is a lack of sufficient evidence to recommend astragalus during pregnancy and lactation. Studies of toxic astragalus species have reported harmful effects during animal pregnancies, leading to abortions or abnormal heart development.
  • Astragaloside IV, a component of astragalus, has demonstrated maternal toxicity and toxic effects in the fetus.
  • Astragalus may increase lactation. However, clinical evidence in support of this use is lacking.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare professional before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • Astragalus may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. People taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Astragalus may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Astragalus may alter blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that alter blood pressure.
  • Because astragalus contains estrogen like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Astragalus may also interact with agents for anxiety, arthritis, cancer, obesity, or osteoporosis; agents for the blood, brain, heart, intestines, skin, or stomach; agents that affect muscle contractions; agents that alter dopamine activity; agents that alter immune system function; agents that block epinephrine and norepinephrine receptors; agents that increase urination; agents that promote blood vessel growth; agents that protect the kidney; agents that widen blood vessels; agents toxic to the liver; anesthetics; antiaging agents; antibiotics; anticonvulsants; anti-inflammatories; antivirals; athletic performance enhancers; beta-blockers; cholesterol lowering agents; CNS stimulants; colchicine; cyclophosphamide; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); growth hormone; hormonal agents; interferons; iron; laxatives; nalbuphine; neuromuscular blockers; procarbazine; propoxyphene; radioprotective agents; sedatives; steroids; or vaccines.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Astragalus may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Astragalus may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Astragalus may alter blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that may alter blood pressure.
  • Because astragalus contains estrogen like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.
  • Astragalus may also interact with anesthetics; antiaging herbs and supplements; antibacterials; anticonvulsants; anti-inflammatories; antivirals; athletic performance enhancers; cholesterol lowering herbs and supplements; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); herbs and supplements for arthritis, cancer, obesity, or osteoporosis; herbs and supplements for the blood, brain, heart, intestines, skin, or stomach; herbs and supplements that affect heart rate; herbs and supplements that affect muscle contractions; herbs and supplements that alter dopamine activity; herbs and supplements that alter immune system function; herbs and supplements that block epinephrine and norepinephrine receptors; herbs and supplements that increase urination; herbs and supplements that promote blood vessel growth; herbs and supplements that protect the kidney; herbs and supplements that widen blood vessels; herbs and supplements toxic to the liver; hormonal herbs and supplements; iron; radioprotective herbs and supplements; Rauwolfia alkaloids; Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong; sedatives; selenium; or stimulants.

Authors

Selected References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Chen, H. W., Lin, I. H., Chen, Y. J., Chang, K. H., Wu, M. H., Su, W. H., Huang, G. C., and Lai, Y. L. A novel infusible botanically-derived drug, PG2, for cancer-related fatigue: a phase II double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Invest Med 2012;35(1):E1-11.
  2. Dong XP. Study on the effects of combined treatment with Radix Astragali injection for infantile viral myocarditis. Chinese Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 2011;31(1):64-65.
  3. Fu, S., Zhang, J., Menniti-Ippolito, F., Gao, X., Galeotti, F., Massari, M., Hu, L., Zhang, B., Ferrelli, R., Fauci, A., Firenzuoli, F., Shang, H., Guerra, R., and Raschetti, R. Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) for chronic heart failure: a systematic review. PLoS.One. 2011;6(5):e19604.
  4. Lee, J. J. and Lee, J. J. A phase II study of an herbal decoction that includes Astragali radix for cancer-associated anorexia in patients with advanced cancer. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2010;9(1):24-31.
  5. Liu, Z. L., Liu, Z. J., Liu, J. P., and Kwong, J. S. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2012;11:CD003711.
  6. Lu, Z. M., Qian, X. H., Chen, Z. W., Zhang, C. H., Guo, L. S., and Chen, J. [Prospective clinical study of radix astragali and its compound prescription for treatment of beta-thalassemia in children]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2012;14(5):344-349.
  7. Matkovic, Z., Zivkovic, V., Korica, M., Plavec, D., Pecanic, S., and Tudoric, N. Efficacy and safety of Astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Phytother.Res 2010;24(2):175-181.
  8. Ti, Y. X., Pan, Z. X., and Wu, C. [Intervention of astragalus injection on the kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass of infants with congenital heart disease]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2011;31(5):631-634.
  9. Wu, H. M., Tang, J. L., Cao, L., Sha, Z. H., and Li, Y. Interventions for preventing infection in nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD003964.
  10. Xiong, M., He, Q., Lai, H., Huang, W., Wang, L., and Yang, C. Radix astragali injection enhances recovery from sudden deafness. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33(5):523-527.
  11. Xiong, M., He, Q., Lai, H., Huang, W., Wang, L., Yang, C., and Wang, J. Radix Astragali injection enhances recovery from acute acoustic trauma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131(10):1069-1073.
  12. Yan, X. M. [Adverse drug reaction of lumbago in intravenous dripping of huangqi injection]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2011;31(2):264.
  13. Yang, Q. Y., Chen, K. J., Lu, S., and Sun, H. R. Research progress on mechanism of action of Radix Astragalus in the treatment of heart failure. Chin J Integr Med 2012;18(3):235-240.
  14. Yang, Q. Y., Lu, S., and Sun, H. R. Clinical effect of Astragalus granule of different dosages on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Chin J Integr Med 2011;17(2):146-149.
  15. Zhang, Z. H., Zhou, G., Gong, X., Zhang, R., Qu, X. G., Zeng, C., and Liu, J. L. [Effects of Hengyan medicinal recipe on the regulation of immunity in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective clinical trial]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue. 2011;23(2):77-80.
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