Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers need estrogen and/or progesterone (female hormones that are produced in the body) to grow.
Aromatase inhibitors are hormone therapy drugs that can slow or stop the growth of hormone receptor-positive tumors. They lower estrogen levels in the body by blocking aromatase, an enzyme that converts other hormones into estrogen. This prevents the cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow.
Aromatase inhibitors include:
To learn about a specific aromatase inhibitor, visit the National Institutes of Health's Medline Plus website.
Aromatase inhibitors are used to treat hormone receptor-positive early and metastatic breast cancers.
Aromatase inhibitors are only used to treat postmenopausal women. Premenopausal women should not take aromatase inhibitors.
Women with certain heart problems should not take the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole.
Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer can begin hormone therapy with an aromatase inhibitor or begin with tamoxifen and after a few years, switch to an aromatase inhibitor.
Aromatase inhibitors come in pill form and are taken every day. When aromatase inhibitors are the only hormone therapy given, they are taken for 5 years.
When women switch to an aromatase inhibitor after taking tamoxifen for a few years, they take these drugs for a combined total of up to 10 years (5 years of tamoxifen followed by 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor).
The number of years that aromatase inhibitors should be taken to get the most treatment benefit is still under study.
Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (alone or after several years of tamoxifen) lowers the risk of :
Among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors (alone or after tamoxifen) offer the same or slightly better treatment benefit compared to treatment with tamoxifen alone [62,69-71].
Anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole all have a similar treatment benefit [62,69-71]. They also have similar side effects. However, you may tolerate one drug better than another.
For a summary of research studies on aromatase inhibitors and early breast cancer, visit the Breast Cancer Research Studies section.
The side effects of aromatase inhibitors include muscle and joint pain, a loss of bone density and menopausal symptoms (such as hot flashes).
Learn more about the side effects of aromatase inhibitors.
At this time, we still do not know how long women should take aromatase inhibitors to get the most treatment benefit. There are no data on the benefits or safety of taking aromatase inhibitors for longer than 5 years.
Another question is whether aromatase inhibitors benefit women who were premenopausal when diagnosed with breast cancer, but became menopausal due to treatment. New and ongoing studies should help answer these questions.
Because aromatase inhibitors only work in postmenopausal women, tamoxifen should be used if there is any chance you are still premenopausal.
Aromatase inhibitors are also being studied in the chemoprevention (risk-lowering drugs) setting.
Findings from randomized controlled trials have shown the aromatase inhibitors exemestane and anastrozole may lower the risk of developing breast cancer in postmenopausal women at high risk [72-73].
Learn more about risk-lowering drugs for women at high risk of breast cancer.
Breast cancer treatment is most effective when all parts of the treatment plan are followed.
It is important to follow the treatment plan (for medications and other therapies) prescribed by your health care provider in terms of:
Hormone therapy used to treat breast cancer is typically prescribed for at least 5 years. The length of treatment coupled with side effects can make can make it tough to complete hormone therapy.
Although the menopausal symptoms related to hormone therapy can be hard to deal with, there are things you can do that may ease these side effects. Talk with your health care provider about ways to treat them.
To get the most benefit out of hormone therapy, you need to take the full course of treatment. Women who complete the full course have better survival than those who do not .
If you have trouble remembering to take your hormone therapy, a daily pillbox or setting an alarm on your watch or mobile device (you may be able to download an app) may help . However, you do not need to panic if you miss a day or two.
Learn more about the importance of following your breast cancer treatment plan.
Anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole are off-patent and available in generic forms. Generics cost less than name brand drugs, but are just as effective.
Medicare and many insurance providers offer prescription drug plans. One may already be included in your policy or you may be able to buy an extra plan for prescriptions.
You may also qualify for programs that help with drug costs or offer low-cost or free prescriptions.
Learn more about insurance plans and prescription drug assistance programs.
Susan G. Komen’s position on fairness in breast cancer medication coverage
Medications taken by mouth (oral) are usually covered under a health insurance plan’s prescription drug benefit rather than the plan’s medical benefit. As a result, people often find themselves facing high out-of-pocket costs when filling their prescriptions (sometimes costing thousands of dollars per month). High prescription drug costs are a barrier to care. High costs can prevent people from getting the medications prescribed by their health care provider.
Komen supports efforts at the state and federal levels that require insurers to provide coverage for oral breast cancer medications at a rate no less favorable than what they provide for IV medications to ensure patients have access to affordable, appropriate treatment for their cancer.
Komen Support Resources
Hormone Therapy Video
Facts for Life: Hormone Therapy
Breast Cancer 101 - Aromatase Inhibitors
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